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Agrometeorology Cell

(A) Faculty Information
I/C Agro met Cell
:
Prof.M.C.Chopada,Assistant Professor
Qualification
:
M.Sc. (Agri.)
Specialization
:
Agricultural Meteorology
Phone No. (O)
:
(0285) 2670139     PBX : 446
 Mobile No.
:
098240 72046
 E-mail
:
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(B) Subordinate Staff Information
S.N.
Name and Designation
Qualification
Contact
1
Shri B.V.Parmar, Agril. Assistant
Diploma in Agriculture
99139 55288
2
Mr.D.R.Vaghasiya,Research Associate
M.Sc. (Agri.)
99985 64256
3
U.B.Parmar , Agro met Observer
B.Com.
76980 27738
Achievements in Research, Teaching and Extension activities
(A) RESEARCH
Ongoing and completed research projects :
Sr.
Budget Head
Title of the Project
Sponsoring Authority
Sanctioned Year
Remarks
1
12927
Establishment of Agro meteorological Cell in the College of Agriculture.
Govt. of Gujarat (Without Man Power)
1999-2000
On-going
2
18005-1
Agro-met Advisory Service cheme/Gramin Krushi Mausam Sewa (GKMS).
IMD, New Delhi (Technical Officer)
1995-96
On-going
3
18247-7
Centre of Excellence for Agro meteorological Services at Junagadh and Sub centre of University (RKVY).
 Govt.of Gujarat
 (Without Man Power)
2007-08
Completed
4
18005-2
Energy and Mass Exchange Vegetative System.
ISRO, SAC, Ahmedabad
(One SRF)
2007-08
Completed
5
18005-06
Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agrometeorology and Land based observations (FASAL).
IMD, New Delhi (One SRF)
2010-11
On-going
Ongoing research projects:
(1)    Project 1 :
Integrated Agro meteorological Advisory Services (IAAS) at Junagadh. OR Gramin Krushi Mausam Sewa (GKMS)
Objectives:
1.      To verify the validity and accuracy of medium range weather forecast received from IMD, Pune, Super Computer, New Delhi, Met centre, Ahmedabad.
2.      Preparation of Agro Advisory Bulletins based on medium range weather forecast from IMD, Pune.
3.      To disseminate the weather based bulletins to farmers through extension net work and mass media, AIR, DD and print media (Local Newspapers).
4.      Obtain feedback from the farmers on Agro-advisory system.
(2) Project 2 :
Establishment of Agro meteorological Cell at Agricultural Colleges
Objectives:
1.      Teaching Agro meteorological courses at under graduate and post-graduate levels.
2.      Imparting training to students/staff for recording and maintenance of Agro meteorological observatory.
3.      To conduct research work in various fields of agricultural meteorology.
         a.      Agro climatic characterization of different regions of state
         b.      Micrometeorological studies including energy, mass and momentum transfer within and above crop canopy. 
         c.       Development of crop growth models for major crops of the region
(3) Project 3 :
Forecasting of Agricultural out put using Space, Agrometeorology and Land   based observations. (FASAL)
The prime aim of the project is to develop, validate and issue multiple crop yield forecast for Groundnut, Wheat and Pearl millet in Saurashtra region of Gujarat at mid season (F2) and pre-harvest stage (F3). Specific objectives of the project are:
Objectives:
1.      To establish the relation between weather and crop growth, development and yield for groundnut, wheat, cotton and pearl millet.
2.      To assess and establish the relationship between weather, field level management practices and land factors for crop yield forecasting.
3.      To determine genetic coefficients for popular varieties of groundnut, wheat, cotton and pearl millet for running crop simulation models for crop yield forecasting
4.      To issue multiple crop yield forecast for groundnut, wheat, cotton and pearl millet in Saurashtra region of Gujarat at mid season (F2) and pre-harvest stage (F3)
Recommendations: Six
(1)  Crop-weather relationship of kharif groundnut. (For Scientific Community) (2007-08)
      The farmers of South Saurashtra agro-climatic zone are advised to sow the spreading and semi spreading varieties of groundnut from  21st May to 10th June with one or two pre monsoon irrigations to obtain higher yields with the benefit of favourable weather conditions during the monsoon period.
(2)  Study on evapotranspiration and crop coefficient during different phenophases of sorghum and green gram (Alternate year) (For Scientific Community) (2006-07)
      The crop coefficient for kharif sorghum (cv. Gundari) under North Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone varies from 0.44 during maturity to 0.86 during booting stage. The average values of crop coefficient and crop water use efficiency were 0.67 and 2.96 kg/ha/mm respectively during kharif sorghum. The crop coefficient for kharif green gram (cv. K-851) varies from 0.55 during germination to 1.30 during flowering stage. The average values of Kc and crop water use efficiency 0.96 and 3.68 kg/ha/mm respectively.
(3)   Effect of date of sowing and weather parameters on growth and yield of wheat under South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone.(For Farming  Community) (2010-11 )
      On the basis of the results obtained using heat unit concept, it is recommended to the farmers of AES-VI of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone interested for early sowing of wheat i.e., during first fortnight of November (Minimum temperature 12 to 13o C and Maximum temperature 30 to 31o C) should prefer variety GW-366 for getting higher yield and net profit.
(4)  Determination of thermal requirement for different kharif crops under rainfed condition. (For Scientific Community) (2009-10)
       Based on the field experiment, it was concluded that with delay in onset of monsoon, the Growing Degree Days (GDD) and Heat Use Efficiency (HUE) of different crops were tended to decline.
(5) Assessment of sowing time for irrigated chick pea using heat unit concept under South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone.(For Farming Community) ( 2013-14)
      On the basis of results obtained using heat unit concept, it is recommended to the farmers of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone to sow irrigated chickpea during 30th October to 15th November for securing higher yield and net monitory return.
       ઉષ્ણતા એકમ વિભાવના અનુસાર્ ર્દક્ષિણ સૌરાષ્ટ્ર  ખેત આબોહવાકીય વિસ્તારના ખેડૂતોને વધુ ઉત્પાદન તથા ચોખ્ખી આવક મેળવવા માટે પિયત ચણાનુ વાવેતર ૩૦ ઓક્ટોબર થી ૧૫ નવેમ્બર દરમ્યાન કરવાની ભલામણ કરવામા આવે છે.
(6) Effect of sowing time and spacing on summer guar (For Farming Community) ( 2015-16)
     Based on heat unit concept, the farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climate Zone growing summer guar are advised to sow the crop in second week of February (>220C soil temperature) at 45 cm x 15 cm spacing for obtaining higher yield and net realization.
     ઉષ્ણતા એકમ વિભાવના અનુસાર્ ર્દક્ષિણ સૌરાષ્ટ્ર  ખેત આબોહવાકીય વિસ્તારમા ઉનાળુ ગુવારનુ વાવેતર કરતા ખેડૂતોને સલાહ આપવામા આવે છે કે ગુવારના દાણાનુ મહતમ ઉત્પાદન અને ચોખ્ખુ વળતર મેળવવા માતે ફેબ્રુઆરી ના બીજા અઠવાડીયામા (જમીનનુઉષ્ણતામાન  ૨૨ સે. થી વધુ હોય ત્યારે) ૪૫ X ૧૫સે.મી. ના અંતરે પાકની વાવણી કરવી.
(B) TEACHING
Sr.No.
Course No.
Name of Course
Credit
UG Courses (Fourth Deans Committee)
1
Ag. Met 2.1
Agricultural Meteorology
2+1
2
Ag.Met.6.1
Agricultural Meteorology
2+1
3
Ag.Met. 8.2
Remote Sensing ,GIS and Land Use Planning
1+2
UG Courses (Fifth Deans Committee)
4
Ag.Met.1.1
Introductory Agro meteorology and Climate Change (Fifth Deans)
1+1
5
NRMH 2.4
Agro meteorology and Climate Change (Fifth Deans)
1+1
PG Courses
1
AGM-501
Fundamentals of Meteorology and Climatology
2+1
2
AGM-502
Fundamentals of Agricultural Meteorology
2+1
3
AGM-503
Micrometeorology
2+1
4
AGM-504
Agro meteorological Measurements and Instrumentation
1+2
5
AGM-505
Soil water balance climatology
2+1
6
AGM-506
Crop weather models
1+2
7
AGM-507
Weather modification and risk management strategies
2+0
8
AGM-508
Principles of remote sensing and its application in agriculture
2+1
9
AGM-509
Applied Agricultural Climatology
1+2
10
AGM-591
Masters Seminar
1+0
11
AGM-599
Masters Research
20
12
AGM-601
Climate Change and Sustainable Development
2+1
13
AGM-602
Weather Forecasting
2+1
14
AGM-603
Air Pollution Meteorology
2+1
15
AGM-604
Weather  Climate  and Livestock
2+1
16
AGM-605
Analytical Tools  and Methods for Agrometeorology
2+1
17
AGM-606
Strategic Use of Climatic Information
2+1
18
AGM-607
Mathematics in Agriculture and Biology
2+1
19
AGM-608
Data base Management and Commercialization of Agro meteorological Data E -Services
1+2
20
AGM-691
Doctoral Seminar-I
1+0
21
AGM-692
Doctoral Seminar-II
1+0
22
AGM-699
Doctoral Research
45
 
(a) Practical journals prepared for UG students
     1. Practical Journal on Remote Sensing
     2. Practical Journal on Argil. Meteorology (new and old UG courses)
(b) No. of PG students completed : 6
(C) EXTENSION EDUCATION
(A) The farmers training programmes conducted under RKVY project
S.N.
Training Date/Place
Taluka
No. of farmers benefited
1
11-13, Jan, 2010, Junagadh
Junagadh and Vanthali
32
2
17-19, Feb. 2010 Junagadh
Manavadar and Keshod
26
3
26, Feb. 2010, KVK, Jamanagar
Jamanagar and Lalapur
28
4
8-10 March, 2010 Junagadh
Visavadar and Bhesan
25
5
25 July, 2011, Junagadh
Staff training
27
6
3 November, 2011, Junagadh
Staff Meeting and Training
14
7
10 January 2012, KVK, Nanakandhasar
Chotila  and Sayala Taluka
31
8
18 January 2012, KVK, Targhadia
Rajkot and Wankaner Taluka
45
9
21 January 2012 KVK, Amreli
Amreli and Lathi taluka
34
10
29 March 2012 MSRS Kodinar
Kodinar and Talala taluka
35
(B)   The farmers training programmes conducted under IAAS/GKMS  project
Sr.
Training Date/Place
Taluka
No. of farmers benefited
1
17 March 2012 Junagadh
Junagadh, Bhesan, Vishavadr, Mendrada, Manavadar, Vanthali taluka
68
2
27 March, 2012 KVK, Khapat
Porbanadar and Ranavav taluka
34
3
23 January,2015
Junagadh
Junagadh, Bhesan, Vishavadr, Mendrada, Manavadar, Vanthali taluka
240
4
10 January,2017 Vadal
Junagadh and Bhesan Taluka
62
5
7 March,2017 KVK,Khapat
Porbandar and Kutiyana
50
6
18  March,2017 Sundarpura
( Girsomnath)
Girsomanath and Sutrapada
77
(C) Publications and other activities :
     1.  No. of research papers : 45
     2.  No. of popular articles : 16
     3.   No. of books : 9
     4.  No. of folders and booklets : 4
     5.  The maintenance of agro met observatory and automatic weather station
     6.  Analysis of observed and forecasted data for Junagadh district
     7.  Preparation of annual weather report
     8.  Preparation of agro advisory bulletins and dissemination through various media.
The climate change related studies
Rainfall Variability and Tendency over Saurashtra and Kutch Regions of Gujarat
   Climate change due to global warming is a reality now- a- days. The increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 and other green house gases in recent years are well documented and theoretical reasons for higher concentrations to cause global warming. It is difficult to obtain global and regional averages of rainfall and temperature because both diurnal and seasonal variations considerably differ from location to location. At local and regional levels the tendency and distribution of these parameters are influenced by geographical situations. It is therefore, necessary that the changes of rainfall pattern are quantified taking into consideration the long term data available at the locality.
Source of Rainfall data:
   Annual rainfall data of all the six districts of Saurashtra region (Junagadh, Rajkot, Jamnagar, Surendranagar, Bhavnagar and Amreli) and Kutch region for 100 years (1901-2000) was collected from the records of Department of Agriculture, Govt. of Gujarat.
Rainfall variability over Saurashtra and Kutch regions for last 110 years (1901-2010).
Districts
1901-2010
Mean
SD
CV%
Median
Highest
Lowest
Junagadh
734
338
46
685
1859 (1983)
132 (1901)
Rajkot
556
211
38
560
1296 (1959)
180 (1987)
Jamnagar
489
250
51
420
1508 (2007)
26 (1987)
Surendranagar
488
212
43
453
1276 (1927)
115 (1987)
Bhavnagar
588
231
39
569
1164 (1947)
167 (1972)
Amreli
598
272
46
539
1640 (1926)
113 (1987)
Saurashtra region
581
221
38
528
1195 (1959)
134(1987)
Kutch region
380
213
56
314
951 (1994)
5 (1987)
*figures in bracket indicate years.
Annual rainfall tendency over Saurashtra and Kutch regions for 110 years (1901-2010)
S. N.
District
Equation
R2
1
Junagadh
Y = 4.2524 X + 497.56
0.1615
2
Rajkot
Y = 0.8541 X + 533.06
0.0132
3
Jamnagar
Y = 2.4555 X + 352.34
0.0980
4
Surendranagar
Y = 0.46 X + 476.85
0.0048
5
Bhavnagar
Y = 0.1432 X + 579.84
0.0004
6
Amreli
Y = 1.1296 X + 535.51
0.0175
7
Saurashtra region
Y = 1.5491 X + 495.86
0.0501
8
Kutch region
Y = 1.007 X + 324.06
0.0227
Annual rainfall tendency over Saurashtra and Kutch regions for last decade (2001-2010)
S. N.
Districts
Equation
R2
1
Junagadh
Y = 65.218 X+ 747.80
0.3605
2
Rajkot
Y = 60.718 X + 494.90
0.2983
3
Jamnagar
Y = 54.227 X + 491.70
0.2118
4
Surendranagar
Y = 6.4606 X + 606.27
0.0130
5
Bhavnagar
Y = -7.20 X + 711.80
0.0056
6
Amreli
Y = 36.564 X + 613.40
0.1232
7
Saurashtra region
Y = 35.998 X + 612.81
0.1735
8
Kutch region
Y = 20.37 X +465.07
0.1201
Frequency of heavy rainfall years (>1000 mm) and above average rainfall years in Saurashtra region.
Districts
Heavy rainfall years (>1000 mm)
1901-2000
2001-2010
Above average
Junagadh
17
7
9 (696)
Rajkot
2
4
7 (556)
Jamnagar
0
3
8 (589)
Surendranagar
2
0
8 (488)
Bhavnagar
4
1
6 (578)
Amreli
4
4
6 (577)
Kutch
0
0
9 (360)
Figures in bracket indicate average of 100 years.
Conclusion :
1.  The normal annual rainfall (1901-2010) of Saurashtra region was 581.0 mm with the coefficient of variation of 38 percent, the highest rainfall being 1195 mm in the year 1959 and lowest rainfall 134.0 mm in the year 1987.
2.  Trend analysis of 110 years of rainfall indicated that rainfall is in increasing trend   (1.5 mm per year) over Saurashtra region.
3.  Junagadhdistrict showed increasing trend of rainfall at the rate of 4.25 mm per year over 110 years.
4.  In Rajkot district the rainfall was increasing at the rate of 0.85 mm per year over the study period.
5.  The Jamanagar district showed an increasing trend at the rate of 2.15 mm per year.
6.  In Surendranagar district the rainfall was in increasing trend (0.46 mm/yr).
7.  The Bhavnagar district rainfall was slightly increasing @ 0.14 mm over 110 years.
8.  In Amreli district the rainfall was increasing @ 1.12 mm/yr.
9.  The Kutch district recorded an increasing rainfall @ 1.02 mm over last 110 years.
10.  The frequency of heavy rainfall events and the above average rainfall years are increasing in Saurashtra and Kutch regions.
11.  A significant increase in rainfall trend in the last decade is going to impact the agricultural production in the regions.
Temperature trend at Junagadh :
      The daily maximum and minimum temperature data for the last 25 years (1985-2009) were used to study the temperature pattern at Junagadh. The results are as under. The maximum temperature has shown a decreasing trend in all the months except April and August. However, both increase and decrease in maximum temperature are not significant in any of the months. The minimum temperature has shown a decreasing trend in the months of June, July, August and October while increasing trend in the other months. The increase in minimum temperature is approximately 0.12o C per year in all the months. The decrease in minimum temperature is not significant.
Heat and cold waves at Junagadh during last 25 years:-
Sr. No.
Month
Heat waves
Month
Cold waves
1
March
12
December
19
2
April
34
January
26
3
May
28
February
11
Total
 
74
 
56
Heat and cold waves: -
    Heat wave is defined as a continuous period of more than 3 to 4 days having maximum temperature more than or equal to 40oC per day. A cold wave can be defined as the continuous period of 3 to 4 days having minimum temperature less than or equal to 10oC per day. In Junagadh region the number of heat waves is more than the cold waves. The trend of heat waves is also increasing.
Hot and cold days:-
    The number of hot days in the months of April and May shows increasing trend where as, the number of cold days in the months of December, January and February are in the decreasing trend.
 Sr. No.
Month
Hot Days
Month
Cold Days
1
March
 77
December
142
2
April
294
January
220
3
May
232
February
 75
Total
 
603
 
437
Rainfall pattern at Junagadh
    The daily rainfall data of 53 years (1957-2009) recorded at Junagadh was used to study the rainfall pattern. The results are as under.
Annual rainfall:-
    The annual normal rainfall at Junagadh is 917.1mm ranging from 2794.0mm in the year 1983 to 145.6 mm in the year 1987. The variability of rainfall is 46.2 percent.
Monsoon rainfall:-
    The normal monsoon rainfall is 863.2mm with a standard deviation of 426.1 mm and variability of 49.4 per cent. The highest monsoon rainfall 2777.0 mm was recorded in the year 1983 followed by 1668.0 mm in the year 1980 and the lowest of 138.2 mm in the year 1987, followed by 291.1 mm in the year 1982.
Monthly rainfall:-
    The normal rainfall for June, July, August and September are 183.0, 354.2, 201.6 and 124.4 mm respectively. The highest rainfall of 1432.0 mm was recorded in the year 1983 in June, 1056 mm in the year 1988 in July, 787.3 mm in the year 1979 in August and 533.0 mm in the year 2005 in September.
Monthly Rainfall Trend:-
     The time series trend analysis of monthly, monsoon and annual rainfall is worked out. The results indicated that the rainfall during June, August and September are increasing, whereas, the rainfall during July is decreasing. The rainfall of monsoon season as a whole is increasing by 1.3 mm per year as the annual rainfall by 2.0 mm per year.
Agro meteorological Cell, Department of Agronomy, JAU, Junagadh :
Temperature pattern:
     The daily maximum and minimum temperature data for the last 25 years (1985-2009) were used to study the temperature pattern at Junagadh. The results are as under.
Maximum temperature:
     The maximum temperature is decreasing in all the months except April and August. However, both increase and decrease in maximum temperature are not significant in any of the months.
Minimum temperature:
     The minimum temperature is decreasing in the months of June, July, August and October, while it is increasing in the other months. The increase in minimum temperature is approximately 0.12oC per year in all the months. The decrease in minimum temperature is not significant.
Heat and cold waves at Junagadh during last 25 years:
Sr. No.
Month
Heat waves
Month
Cold waves
1
March
12
December
19
2
April
34
January
26
3
May
28
February
11
Total
 
74
 
56
 Heat and cold waves:
     Heat wave is defined as a continuous period of more than 3 to 4 days having maximum temperature more than or equal 40oC per day. A cold wave can be defined as the continuous period of 3 to 4 days having minimum temperature less than or equal to 10oC per day. In Junagadh region the number of heat waves is more than the cold waves. The trend of heat waves is also increasing.
Hot and cold days:
    The number of hot days in the months of April and May shows increasing trend whereas, the number of cold days in the months of December, January and February are in the decreasing trend.
Rainfall pattern:
    The daily rainfall data of 53 years (1957-2009) recorded at Junagadh was used to study the rainfall pattern.
Annual rainfall:
    The annual normal rainfall at Junagadh is 917.1 mm ranging from 2794.0 mm in the year 1983 to 145.6 mm in the year 1987. The variability of rainfall is 46.2%.
Monsoon rainfall:
    The normal monsoon rainfall is 863.2 mm with a standard deviation of 426.1 mm and variability of 49.4%. The highest monsoon rainfall 2777.0 mm was recorded in the year 1983 followed by 1668.0 mm in the year 1980 and the lowest of 138.2 mm in the year 1987, followed by 291.1 mm in the year 1982.
Monthly rainfall:
    The normal rainfall for June, July, August and September are 183.0, 354.2.201.6, and 124.4 mm, respectively. The highest rainfall of 1432.0 mm was recorded in the year 1983 in June, 1056.0 mm in the year 1988 in July, 787.3 mm in the year 1979 in August and 533.0 mm in the year 2005 in September.
Monthly rainfall trend:
    The time series trend analysis of monthly, monsoon and annual rainfall is worked out. The results indicated that the rainfall during June, August and September are increasing, whereas, the rainfall during July is decreasing. The rainfall of monsoon season as a whole is increasing by 1.3 mm per year as the annual rainfall by 2.0 mm per year.