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Research, Testing & Training Centre (RTTC)

Research, Testing & Training Centre (RTTC)

Junagadh Agricultural University

Junagadh, Gujarat

Year of Establishment : 1962-63
Introduction :
The scheme for the establishment of Research, Testing and Training Centre in improved Agricultural implements at Junagadh was started during the third five year plan in 1962-63 vide Government of  Gujarat  resolution No. AGE/1161/ 84047-E dated 11-08-1961. The activities of center were Research, Testing and Training in farm implements. But later on Research & Extension to other areas of agricultural engineering were taken-up as per the need. The centre has the jurisdiction of entire state. The centre is holding the responsibility of liaisoning with state government and other organizations in the area of Agricultural Engineering.
Mandate :
  1. To promote mechanization and to solve the problems of farmers
Objectives :
  1. To design & develop simple, labour saving, cheap and efficient agricultural implements and other equipments and to advise suitable techniques in Agricultural Engineering.
  2. To test the implements and other agricultural equipments suitable for use in the region under actual field conditions.
  3. To modify and improve the agricultural equipments.
  4. To import implements from foreign countries or other parts of the country for testing and to find out the suitability of these implements for this region for certain agricultural operations for which no implement is available at present.
  5. To introduce and popularize the suitable farm equipments and other agricultural engineering technology.
  6. To impart training in agricultural equipments and other engineering technology
Faculty Profile :
Sr.
Name & Designation
Qualification
Specialized subject
1
Dr. R. Subbaiah, Professor
Ph.D
Soil and Water Engg.
2
Er. G. V. Prajapati,
Assistant Research scientist
M.Tech. (Agril. Engg.)
Soil and Water Engg.
3
Er. V. K. Sardhara,
Assistant Research scientist
M.Tech. (Agril. Engg.)
Soil and Water Engg.
4
D. A. Vanaliya, 
Farm Assistant 
Diploma in Agril.
-
5
V.V. Sumera,
Suthar 
ITI in Carpenter
-
6
V. S. Kava, Junior Mechanic
ITI in Welding
-
7
P. D. Devmorari,
Welder 
ITI in Welding
Working in CAET on pool basis
 
Research projects and schemes – ongoing
Name of Scheme
Budget
Head
Type of scheme
Funding Agency
Research, Testing and Training Centre  5073-A Non-plan State Government
Centre of excellence on soil and water management 12101-01 Plan State Government
Research on rejuvenation of degraded costal agro eco system of Saurashtra 12574 Plan State Government
On going Experiments  :
Centre of Excellence on Soil & Water Management
1
Evaluation of different mulches for sapota crop under drip irrigation
2
Impact of irrigation regimes and mulching on the economic productivity of drip irrigated cotton.
3
Geometry of wetting pattern under trickle irrigation. 
4
Conjuctive effect of emitter configuration and irrigation regimes on productivity of cumin.
Research Testing & Training Centre
5
Design and development of Tractor operated Farm Yard Manure applicator
Collaboration with other departments
6
Performance of auxiliary storage system in canal command areas for enhancing use efficiency of water resources.
Teaching :
M.Tech Projects
Two
1)    Evaluation of Drip System geometry and irrigation regimes on productivity
       of Cumin: Arvind Kunapara 
2)    Estimating Reference Evopotranspiration with limited Meteorological
       Data : Khyati Vyas
Ph. D Students
Three
1)    G. V. Prajapati
2)    H. R. Vadar
3)    H. Y. Mehta
M. Tech / Ph. D.
Teaching
 Four Subjects of P. G. & Ph. D.
Achievements :
The following  farm equipments have been recommended and released for farmers' use :-
1
Hard, grassy or dryland fields with stubbles of sugarcane, wheat, millet and sorghum can be prepaid for immediate sowing in next season by working ones with rotavator  instead of working three or more times with plough, cultivator and straight blade harrow rotavator is the quickest and cheapest means for land preparation. This implement is recommended for farmers use.     (1982)
2
Drilling attachment to multipurpose pipe framed implement is useful for automatic and uniform sowing without gaps and clusters. It helps in reducing cost of seeds and sowing and increased the yield of crops. This implement is recommended for farmers use. (1983)
3
Farmers are recommended to use adjustable yoke instead if three or more local yokes. (1986)
4
Small and marginal farmers are recommended to replace their pair of bullocks by single bullock and use single bullock drawn multipurpose implement for harrowing, sowing and interculturing operation. (1993)
5
The bullock drawn multi crop seed-cum-fertilizer drilling attachment to "Samrat Santi" is useful for sowing groundnut, blackgram, Bengal gram, green gram, cotton, sorghum, wheat, pearl millet and sesamum etc. with uniform seed placement at controlled rates alongwith fertilizer drilling manually. Its use is economical as compared to the local seed drill, it is recommended for farmer's use. (1996)
6
The tractor drawn drilling attachment to cultivator is useful for sowing groundnut blackgram, bengalgram, sorghum, sesamum, pearl millet and pigeonpea etc, with uniform seed placement and controlled seed rates. Its use is also agronomical as compared to tractor drawn manually metered seed drill (LOCAL). Hence, it is recommended for farmer's use. (1996)
7
The bullock drawn hoe-cum-Fertilizer drilling attachment is useful to place second dose of nitrogenous fertilizer (Urea) for cotton is moist soil zone near the plant roots alongwith the interculturing operation without plant damage. In comparison to traditional method crop yield is also increased by placing fertilizer with this equipment. Hence, its use is beneficial to the cotton grower.  It is therefore, recommended for farmer's use. (1996)
8
The seed cum fertilizer drilling attachment to tractor drawn cultivator is useful for sowing of crops like groundnut, green gram, block gram, gram, wheat, sorghum, pearl millet and pigeon pea along with the fertilizer application with uniform placement and controlled seed and fertilizer rate. There fore, it is released for the farmers’ use and its commercial exploitation. (2000)
9
The farmers are recommended to use semi automatic gap filler for filling the gaps in the field and for planting wide spaced crops like cotton, Castor and groundnut.  Using this equipment work out put of the operator can be increased by two times. Therefore the equipment is released for farmers’ use and its commercial exploitation. (2000)
10
A mango plucker has been devised and recommended for commercial use by farmers in order to mechanize the mango harvesting.  It maintains fruit stack length of 1-2 cm. and doubles the work output. (2001)
11
Following matching equipments are recommended for farmers' use for increasing the usefulness of power tillers  :  (2001)
 
1. 300 to 375 mm long twin straight blade with tool carrier for interculturing
    groundnut sown at 600 mm row spacing.
 
2. Straight blade harrows of size 450 mm, 600 mm, 750 mm etc. as per spacing
    with two depth controlling wheels and tool carrier can be used for groundnut
    harvesting. (Curved blade is more effective in case of hard soil conditions)
 
3. A drive mechanism designed and developed to operate locally available threshers
    and decorticators.
12
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone No. 7 growing castor and other raw crops like groundnut, cotton etc. are advised to use sweep blade (angle - 70o and working length - 42 cm) for interculturing to reduce number of clogging and to increase weeding and field efficiency as compared to straight and curved blade. Use of sweep blade in interculturing also reduces human drudgery to operator. (2005)
13
Mango growers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone are advised to use positioner for mango harvesting with uniform stalk length (1-2 cm.), for maintaining white layer on the fruits and with choice of matured fruits as the operation is conducted at a close distance. Using this machine, one can get economical advantage over local picker.(2006).
14
The farmer, entrepreneur and design engineer are advised to install the drip irrigation system as per the layout as given below for different crops for minimizing the cost of installation. (2007)
 
 Cost of  Drip irrigation  in horticultural crops :
Sr. No.
Name of Crop
Spacing 
( m x m)
Expenditure
( Rs/ha)
Design Layout No.
Size of Different components
Screen Filter
Main Line
Sub main line
Lateral
Dripper Discharge
M3/h
mm
mm
mm
Lph
1
Mango
10 x 10
25,376/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
2
Sapota
10 x 10
25,493/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
3
Coconut
6 x 6
33,855/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
4
Custard apple
6 x 6
34,123/-
5
10
-
50
16
4
5
Guava
6 x 6
33,372/-
3 or 5
10
50
40
12
8
6
Lemon
6 x 6
33,855/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
7
Pomegranate
6 x 6
35,131/-
5
10
-
50
16
4
8
Datepalm
8 x 8
30,255/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
9
Ber
6 x 6
32,209/-
3 or 5
10
50
40
12
8
10
Amla
8 x 8
29,476/-
4 or 5
10
40
32
12
8
11
Popaya
2 x 2
58,789/-
5
10
-
75
16
4
12
Cashew nut
5.4 x 5.4
36,124/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
Cost of  Drip irrigation  in field crops :
Sr. No.
Name of Crop
Crop geometry
( m x m ) 
(R x P)
Lateral x Dripper Spacing
(mx m)
Expen-diture
(Rs/ha)
Design Layout No.
Size of Different components
Screen Filter
Main Line
Sub main line
Late-ral
Dripper Discharge
M3/h
mm
mm
mm
Lph
1
Groundnut
0.45x0.1
0.9 x 0.6
1,23,986/-
3
20
90
75
12
2
2
Groundnut
0.9x0.1
0.9 x 0.6
1,19,971/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
3
Groundnut
0.6x0.1
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
4
Groundnut
0.75x0.1
0.75x0.6
1,42,174/-
3
25
90
75
12
2
5
Cotton
1.5x0.6
1.5 x 1.2
86,723/-
3
25
90
75
16
8
6
Cotton
1.2x0.6
1.2 x 1.2
78,612/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
7
Cotton
0.9x0.6
0.9 x 1.2
98,673/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
8
Castor
0.6x0.6x 1.2
1.8 x 0.6
68,619/-
3
10
63
50
12
2
9
Castor
0.9x0.6
0.9 x 1.2
98,673/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
10
Castor
0.9x0.6
0.9 x 0.6
1,48,711/-
4
40
75
63
16
4
11
Tomato/ Brinjal
0.6 x 0.6 x 0.9
1.5 x 1.2
68,301/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
12
Tomato/ Brinjal
0.75x0.6
0.75x1.2
1,16,618/-
3
25
90
75
12
4
13
Banana
1.5 x 1.5
1.5 x 1.5
62,290/-
3
10
63
50
12
4
14
Banana
1x1.2 x 2
3.2 x 1/2
45,101/-
5
10
-
50
16
2
15
Chilles
0.6 x 0.6
1.2 x 1.2
78,612/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
16
Lady's finger
0.6 x 0.3
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
17
Lady's finger
0.3x 0.3x 0.9
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
18
Cabbage/ Cauliflower
0.45 x 0.45
0.9 x 0.9
1,02,902/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
19
Cabbage/ Cauliflower
0.3 x 0.3 x 0.9
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
20
Bittergourd
1 x 1
1 x 1
99,647/-
3
20
90
75
12
4
21
Sugarcane
0.1 x 0.6 x 1.2
1.8 x 0.6
68,619/-
3
10
63
50
12
2
15
The farmers having Kagzilime orchards are advised to use the JAU-Lime harvester to reduce losses like spoilage and immature lemon fall-up (2010)
16
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut under poor drainage field conditions are advised to sow by Broad Bed Furrow method (55 cm width and 15 cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed between two furrows) for getting higher yield and net return.
17
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone having saline ground water (EC-3.15 dsm-1) and medium black calcareous soil (EC-0.88 dsm-1) conditions are advised to introduce horticulture plants like; Seemaruba, Sweet Tamarind, Aonla, Pomogranate, Sapota, Date palm, Ber, Carambola and Guava.
18
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone are advised to use the excess rainfall prevailing during 27-32nd standard weeks (2nd July to 12th August) judiciously and frugally towards supplemental to sustain crop pruductivity under rainfed agriculture. (2013)
19
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut are advised to prefer Broad Bed Furrow (55cm width and 15cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed width between two furrows) land configuration for getting more moisture retention and higher return. (2013)
The following technologies have been recommended for farmers :
1
Test data of 24 submersible pumps available in the market are released for the farmers to select the best for their requirements. (1980)
2
Use of power tiller for conducting three major farm operations like sowing, inter culturing and groundnut harvesting are found beneficial as compare to pair of bullocks. Hence, farmers having mechanical aptitude are recommended to use power tiller instead of bullock for groundnut farming. (1986)
3
The farmers having mechanical aptitude can successfully, replace the pair of bullocks by a power tiller (due to lower cost of field operations with higher speed, e.g. the total cost of the six operations for groundnut cultivation was found to be Rs. 1314 /ha using power tiller as compared to Rs. 2158 /ha with pair of bullocks. The area covered per unit time was also higher using power tiller in all the operations as compared to a pair of bullock.)  (1994)
4
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic zone growing summer groundnut (row spacing 45 cm) are recommended to use drip method  (with laterals in alternate rows at 90 cm spacing and 4 lph drippers at 45 cm spacing) to irrigate the crop alternate day at IW/CPE : 0.8. The farmers are advised to operate drip system for 45 minutes to 1 hour during January to March months and 1 hour to 1 hour 45 minutes during April to June months at recommended pressure for securing maximum production at profit. (1994)
5
For the safe and prolonged use of recharging wells, it is recommended for the farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic zone to use GAU filter for trapping sediment and other impurities from the runoff water after it passes through commonly adopted pre-filter with a good vegetative barrier.
            The filter comprises of three layer of 30 to 40 mm gravel, 8 to 12 mm pebbles and 2 to 3 mm coarse sand each of 15 cm thick from bottom followed by a 20 cm thick layer of 0.5 to 1.0 mm fine sand. A pipe of appropriate size from filter bottom to the well be laid at a slope of 5 par cent with suitable arrangement of bigger stones around the entrance end of it. A runoff by-pass arrangement 20 cm. Further, for an inflow rate of 1 liter per second, a filter size of 3 sq.m. is enough to  function  efficiently for  a period of  atleast  80 minutes. (1998)
6
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing papaya crop are recommended to use 200 gauge LDPE plastic mulch in drip irrigation with the 8 LPH drippers placed 20 cm away from plant stem. The system be operated daily for 3 hrs. at 1.1 Kg/cm2  pressure in  October to February and for  5  hrs. from March to April to gain maximum yield and profit. Under water scarcity situation,  it is advised to irrigate daily for 1.75 hrs. during October to February and for 3 hrs. from March to April for bringing more area under cultivation with the limited available of water for maximum earning.  (1999)
7
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut under poor drainage field conditions are advised to sow by Broad Bed Furrow method (55 cm width and 15 cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed between two furrows) for getting higher yield and net return.
8
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone are advised to use the excess rainfall prevailing during 27-32nd standard weeks (2nd July to 12th August) judiciously and frugally towards supplemental to sustain crop pruductivity under rainfed agriculture. (2013)
9
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut are advised to prefer Broad Bed Furrow (55cm width and 15cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed width between two furrows) land configuration for getting more moisture retention and higher return. (2013)
10
Scientists, Policy makers and Irrigation planners of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone are advised to plan their irrigation water schedules to the crop based on the following guidelines : (2013)
  1. Moderately dry and severe dry years appear once in 7 years and 10 years from 2002.
  2. Moderately dry July, August and September months appear once in 10 years, 9 years and 5 years respectively from 2002.
  3. Severe dry July, August and September months and years appear once in 9 years, 18 years and 13 years respectively from 2002.
  4. Abnormal weeks appear once in 6 years from 2002.
  5. Severe dry spell of 15 days occur once in 15 years during July and August.
  6. A dry spell of 10 days occur once in 7 years in July (July 1-10) and once in 13 years in August (August 10-20).
Achievements :
The following farm equipments have been recommended and released for farmers' use :-
  1. Tractor drawn rotavator (1982)
  2. Drilling attachment to multipurpose pipe frame implement (1983).
  3. Adjustable yoke (1986).
  4. Single bullock drawn implement (1993).
  5. Seed-cum-fertilizer drilling attachment to pipe frame implement (1996).
  6. Drilling attachment to the tractor drawn cultivator (1996).
  7. Bullock drawn hoe-cum-fertilizer drill (1996).
  8. Seed-cum-fertilizer drilling attachment to tractor drawn cultivator  (2000)
  9. Semi automatic gap filler (2000).
  10. Mango harvesting device (2001)
  11. Power tiller matching equipment for interculturing / harvesting and       threshing of groundnut. (2001)
  12. Use of sweep blade for interculturing (2005)
  13. Tractor operated positioner for mango harvesting. (2006)
  14. Standardization of drip irrigation system (2008)
  15. Kagzilime harvester (2010)
The Following technologies have been recommended for farmers :
  1. Submersible pump test data for the selection of pumps (1980).
  2. Use of power tiller in place of a pair of bullocks for groundnut cultivation for the farmers having mechanical aptitude (1986).
  3. Use of power tiller for farming (1994).
  4. Use of drip irrigation for summer groundnut (1994).
  5. Use of sand filter for artificial ground water recharging through dug wells (1998).
  6. Use of drip irrigation with mulching in papaya crop (1999).
Publications : (Include the publications published by Station only)
(a) Publications Useful to the Farmers :
Book:
  1. "Adjustable yoke"  by P. Mohnot, R.A. Gupta and R.B. Maraviya(1997)
  2. "Single  bullock drawn multi purpose implement " by R.A. Gupta, P.Mohnot  and  R.B. Maraviya (1998)
Pamphlet  :
  1. Pump  setni  jalavani kem  karsho ?  (1984)
  2. Sudharela khet  ojaro  by  P. Mohnot, R.A. Gupta and R.B. Maraviya(1947)
  3. Power  tiller -  khetima  baladno  vikalp by  P. Mohnot, R.B. Maraviya, Punil Gajjar and  R.A. Gupta (1999).
  4. Adhunik  krushi  yantro  by  R.B. Maraviya,  R.A. Gupta, P. Mohnot and N.K. Darmsania (1999).
  5. Khedut  upayogi  nutan krushi yantro  by  R.A. Gupta P. Mohnot  and R.M. Satasiya (2000).
  6. Varasadna   vahi  jata panine  filterthi  galine  kuvama  utariye  by  N.K. Gontia,  R.A.  Gupta,  P.Mohnot,  R.M. Satasiya and  R.B. Maraviya (2002) 
  7. Khedut  upayogi  nutan krushi yantro  by  R.H. Ghaghada, P. Mohnot, R.A. Gupta and R.M. Satasiya (2004).
(b) Publications Useful to the Others:
Books:
  1. Farm  implements of  Saurashtra (Gujarat) by R.A. Gupta, R.M. Satasiya, P. Mohnot and R.B. Maraviya (2002).
  2. Guideline and standardization of drip irrigation for various crops. (2008)
  3. Augmentation of water resources through rain water harvesting in  Saurashtra region (Gujarat) (2008)
  4. Saurashtra vistarma jalstrav vyavsthapan (watershed management) antargat jalsanchay. (2008)
  5. Occha Pani A Vadhu Pak Utpadan Levano Safal Kimiyo - Pani No Karyaxam Upiyog by H.D. Rank, H. H. Mashru, G. V. Prajapati (2009)
  6. Bhumigat Piyat Padhdhati- Piyat no ek adhunik abhigam by G. V. Prajapati, R. Subbaiah, H. H. Mashru (2011)
  7. Tapak Sinchai Padhdhati ane Teni Jalavani by H. H. Mashru, R. Subbaiah, G. V. Prajapati (2011)
Pamphlet:
  1. Watershed  management  technology in hot arid region  by  R.H. Ghaghada, R. M. Satasiya,  H. H. Mashru (2004).
  2. Bhugarb  jal  recharge by H.D. Rank, H. H. Mashru, G. V. Prajapati (2009)
  3. Adhunik Krishi Ojaro Tatha Yantro by J. B. Savani, R. Subbaiah, H. H. Mashru, G.V.Prajapati (2010)
  4. Kagzi Limbu Utarvano Vedo by H. H. Mashru, R. Subbaiah, G. V. Prajapati (2011)
  5. Nabali Nitar Shakti Vali Jaminma Magfalinu Vavetar by G. V. Prajapati, R Subbaiah, H. H. Mashru, V. K. Sardhara (2012)
  6. Saurashtrana Dariyakanthama Ugadi Sakata Bagayati Pako by G. V. Prajapati, R. Subbaiah, V. K. Sardhara, H. H. Mashru (2012)
Transfer of technologies :
  1. Demonstration of farm tools / equipments developed at the centre.
  2. Participation in exhibition, krushimela, farmer and scientific day organized by government / non-government organization.
  3. Preparation of extension materials like folder, pamphlet, technical bulletin etc related to farm implement, filter for well recharging, power filler.
  4. The scientific staff of the centre has delivered lectures in different training programme.
  5. The scientist has delivered radio and TV talks.
  6. Publication of popular articles in various magazines, News papers etc. 
  7. Farmer, village artesian, industrialists are visiting the centre.  Literature and information of agricultural implement and water harvesting techniques are supplied to them.
Trainings organized under "Centre of Excellence on Soil & Water Management"
Sr. No.
Title of Training
Date of training
Place
No. of Farmers
1
Rain water harvesting and its efficient utilization
22-24/11/2005
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
38 Farmes
2
Efficient utilization of irrigation water by micro irrigation systems
16-17/3/2006
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
21 Ngo’s employee
3
Water resources of Saurashtra and its efficient utilization in agriculture
28-29/11/2006
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
31 Farmers
4
Soil conservation and water harvesting in arable and non-arable lands of Saurashtra
24-25/10/2007
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
36 Farmers
5
Soil & water conservation practices
15-16/12/2008
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
26 GLDC & NGO staff
6
Integrated development of irrigated and rainfed agriculture
18-19/1/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
32 Farmers
7
Groundnut cultivation and its value addition
16/04/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
45 (farmers)
8
Application of advanced science and technology in wheat cultivation
05/10/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
43 (farmers)
9
Advanced agricultural practices for cotton
14/12/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
30 (Farmers)
10
Advanced agricultural practices for vegetable crops
08/08/2011
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
30 (Farmers)
11
Exportable agricultural practices of onion and its value addition
19/10/2011
Research Scientist (Horti), Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mahuva
50 (Farmers)
12
Exportable agricultural practices of horticultural crops and its value addition
13/01/2012
Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mangrol
50 (Farmers)
13
Advanced agricultural practices for horticultural crops and its value addition
06/03/2012
TCD Farm, JAU, Talaja
150 (Farmers)
14
Adance agricultrural practices and efficient water management in cotton
01/09/2012
Research Testing & Training  Centre, JAU, Junagadh
45 (Farmers)
15
Advanced agricultural practices for vegetable crops and efficient water management
12/03/2013
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
60 (Farmers)
Service Activities :
1.    Land development, drainage work & water harvesting activities at university farms are undertaken.
2.    Technical recommendation for farm implements & equipments.
3.    Auction of scrap item of different departments of this university.

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