Articles

Research, Testing & Training Centre (RTTC)

Junagadh Agricultural University

Junagadh, Gujarat

Year of Establishment : 1962-63
Introduction :
The scheme for the establishment of Research, Testing and Training Centre in improved Agricultural implements at Junagadh was started during the third five year plan in 1962-63 vide Government of  Gujarat  resolution No. AGE/1161/ 84047-E dated 11-08-1961. The activities of center were Research, Testing and Training in farm implements. But later on Research & Extension to other areas of agricultural engineering were taken-up as per the need. The centre has the jurisdiction of entire state. The centre is holding the responsibility of liaisoning with state government and other organizations in the area of Agricultural Engineering.
Mandate :
  1. To promote mechanization and to solve the problems of farmers
Objectives :
  1. To design & develop simple, labour saving, cheap and efficient agricultural implements and other equipments and to advise suitable techniques in Agricultural Engineering.
  2. To test the implements and other agricultural equipments suitable for use in the region under actual field conditions.
  3. To modify and improve the agricultural equipments.
  4. To import implements from foreign countries or other parts of the country for testing and to find out the suitability of these implements for this region for certain agricultural operations for which no implement is available at present.
  5. To introduce and popularize the suitable farm equipments and other agricultural engineering technology.
  6. To impart training in agricultural equipments and other engineering technology
Faculty Profile :
Sr.
Name & Designation
Qualification
Specialized subject
1
Dr. G. V. Prajapati
Associate Professor
Ph. D.
Soil and Water Engineering
2
Prof. P. A. Pandya
Assistant Professor
M. Tech
Soil and Water Engineering
3
Shri D. A. Vanaliya 
Agril. Supervisor
Diploma in Agril.
(On pool basis)
4
Ms. R. B. Nangas
Sr. Clerk
M.A.
-
5
Mr. K. R. Bhabhor
Jr. Clerk
B.E. (Mechanical)
-
6
Shri Nikunj V. Vora
Craftman Fitter
ITI in Fitter
(On pool basis)
7
Shri V.V. Sumera
Carpenter
ITI in Carpenter
Working at Poly Tech. in Agril. Engg., Targhadia
8
Shri P. D. Devmorari
Welder 
ITI in Welding
Working in CAET on pool basis
9
Er. Daksh D. Vadalia
Research Associate
M. Tech
Soil and Water Engineering
10
Dr. Sanjay H. Parmar
Research Associate
Ph. D.
Irrigation and Drainage Engineering
Research projects and schemes – ongoing
Name of Scheme
Budget
Head
Type of scheme
Funding Agency
Research, Testing and Training Centre  5073-A Non-plan State Government
Centre of excellence on soil and water management 12101-01 Plan State Government
Research on rejuvenation of degraded costal agro eco system of Saurashtra 12574 Plan State Government
On going Experiments  :
Centre of Excellence on Soil & Water Management
1
Response of fertigation under drip irrigation systems on Sweet corn
2
Hydraulic study of rain pipe irrigation system under solar photovoltaic pump
3
Techno-economic performance of solar pump
 
Collaborative experiment
4

Effect of crop geometry and drip irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture sensor and ETc in sugarcane Sugarcane Research Station, JAU, Kodinar

Research on rejuvenation of degraded costal agro eco system of Saurashtra
5
Response of mulching under different irrigation regimes on coconut
National Seminar, Winter School etc. organized
National Seminar
Sr.
Particular
Details about Particular
1.
Title of the Program
National Seminar  on “Water Management and Climate Smart Agriculture
2.
Objective of the program
Seminar aims to create a platform for knowledge sharing for all stakeholders in the water and wastewater sector. It covers a rich variety of subjects, technologies and practices, thereby giving a comprehensive overview on the subject. The seminar will allow the dissemination and discussion of cutting edge research in the latest applications available in the water management for sustaining agricultural productivity and impact of climatic drift on water resources availability. The scope will include theoretical and applied research, and technological interventions in the areas of water management. The objective of the programme would be to allow water professionals from industry, government and trade to learn and understand some of the latest developments and opportunities in this sector.
3.
Date /Duration
13-14/02/2015
4.
Name & Designation of Dignitaries
Shri Mohanbhai Kalyanjibhai Kundariya, Hon’ble Union Minister of State for Agriculture, Govt of India, Shri Babubhai Bokhiria, Hon’ble Minister of Agriculture, Govt. of Gujarat, Shri Jasabhai Barad, Hon Minister of Agriculture (State), Govt. of Gujarat, Dr.A.R.Pathak, Vice Chancellor JAU, Prof. M.C.Varshney, Vice Chancellor, Kamadhenu University, Dr.D.K.Sharma, Director, CSSRI, Karnal, Dr.Indu Sharma, Director, IIWR, Karnal, Dr.Mausami RayChaudhary Principal scientist,  IIWM, Bhubaneswar, and Dr.R.B.Singhandhupe, Principal Scientist, CIGR, Nagpur, Dr. A.Y.Desai, Director of Research, JAU, Junagadh, Dr. R. Subbaiah, Organizing Secretary, scientists across the country, Progressive Farmers of the state.
5.
No. of Participants
190 Scientists across the country and 50 Progressive Farmers of the Gujarat State
6
Details/ Result/
Achievements/ Conclusion of program
130 Research Papers were presented in 5 concurrent technical sessions on the themes like a) Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climatic Aberrations b) Climate Change assessment, & Impact on Hydrological Modeling and Water Cycle c) Susceptibility of Surface, Ground and River Water to Climate Variability and Geo-Informatics d) Adaption and Mitigation Strategies for Climatic Resilient Water Management and Agriculture and e) One session for farmers community.
Winter School (21 days)
Sr. No.
Particular
Details about Particular
1.
Title of the Program
Winter School on “Implications of Climatic Change on Pedagogical Issues of Water Resources Management”
2.
Objective of the program
The objective of the present course is to:
a)  Provide a broad overview of our current knowledge on climate variations,
b)  Discuss their impact on water resources management, planning and design and agriculture,
c)  Characterize their predictability and advance the understanding of climate variations and climate change,
d) Disseminate this valuable information among the scientific, policy, researchers and NGO’s knowledge domain and
e) Developing innovative and eco-friendly water management interventions to adopt climate change
3.
Date Duration
Date: 21/09/2015 to 11/10/2015  (21 days)
Venue: Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh
4.
Name & Designation of Dignitaries
Dr. A. R. Pathak, Iaugurator and President & Hon’ble, Vice Chancellor, Dr. Anoop Nagar, Regional Director, CGWB, Ahmedabad, Dr. A. Y. Desai, Director of Research, JAU, Junagadh Dr. R. Subbaiah, Course Director & Research Scientist (Agril. Engg.)
5.
Participants
Participants from ICAR Institutes/State Agricultural Universities/Central Agricultural Universities/State Universities/Krishi Vigyan Kendras
6.
No(s). of participants
36 Participants (Odisha, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Gujarat)
7.
Details/
 Result/
Achievements/ Conclusion of program
Winter School organized by Centre of Excellence on Soil & Water Management, RTTC, JAU, Junagadh in collaboration with Central Ground Water Board, Ahmedabad, International Water Management Institute, Anand and ICRISAT, Hyderabad.
The course include the following themes with particular emphasis to agricultural water resources management in the arena of climatic change
  • Stochastic Hydrology and Conceptual Hydrological modelling
  • Soft Computing tools, MCDM and Geospatial analysis in Water Resources
  • Surface and Subsurface Water assessment and interaction in the arena of climate change
  • Aquifer mapping and management of saline water in coastal agro-ecosystem
  • RS and GIS interventions in Water Resources  assessment and management
  • Weather forecasting and Crop growth Simulation models
  • Climate Change Modeling & Assessment
  • Downscaling for assessment of Climate Change on hydrology
  • Hydro-climatic Extremes
  • Surface and Subsurface Water Management Interventions to adopt climate change
  • Harnessing Renewable Energy Sources for Agricultural Water Management
8.
Special remarks by speakers
Hon Vice chancellor appraised the scientists of Centre of Excellence on soil and water management for organizing this school on a topic which is the need of the hour and also commended for bringing high qualitylectures and for enriching the knowledge of the trainers on the subject of climate change impacts on water resources management.
Model Training Course
Sr. No.
Particular
Details about Particular
1.
Title of the Program
Model Training Course on "Water Security and Challenges in the Arena of Climate Change”
2.
Objective of the program
The objectives were a) Provide a broad overview of our current knowledge on climate variations b) Discuss their impact on water resources management, planning and agriculture c) Disseminate this valuable information among Government officers, and d) Develop innovative and eco-friendly water management interventions to adopt climate change
3.
Date Duration Time
Date: 14-21/12/2016. (Eight Days)
Venue: Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh
4.
Name & Designation of Dignitaries
Dr. A. M. Parakhia, Director of Extension Education, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, Dr. P. V. Patel, Director of Student Welfare, JAU, Junagadh, Dr. N. K. Gontia, Principal and Dean, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, JAU, Junagadh and Dr. H. D. Rank, Course Director and Research Scientist (Agril. Engg.), RTTC, JAU, Junagadh
5.
Participants
State Department, KVK’s, SAUs Employees
6.
No(s). of participants
27 Officer from State Department, KVK’s, SAUs all over the country.
7.
Details/  Result/
Achievements/ Conclusion of program
Model Training Course on "Water Security and Challenges in the Arena of Climate Change” wassponsored by Directorate of Extension, Department of Agriculture, Co-operation and Farmers’ Welfare, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi and organized by Centre of Excellence on Soil & Water Management, RTTC, JAU, Junagadh. Total 27 officers from State Development Departments, KVK and SAU’s had participated in Model Training Course from all over the country. Experts from State Department, Water and Land Management Institute, Anand, SVNIT, Surat, Anand Agricultural University, Godhra and Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh has delivered their expert lectures during the Model Training Course. Pre-Training Assessment and Post-Training Assessment was carried out with multiple choice questions drawn from the course content designed under Model Training Course. Field visit was arranged on 15th December, 2016 at different farms of this University for the visit of different groundwater recharging activities carried by the University. Participant has also visited seed science museum as well as food testing laboratory of this University. Remote Sensing and GIS software: Geometica v. 10.0 was demonstrated during the course. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Participatory Irrigation Management was carried out by making different groups of trainees under MTC.
8.
Special remarks by speakers
Dr. A. M. Parakhia, Director of Extension Education, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh, highlighted some issues in his presidential speech that country need to face the challenge holistically through science, technology and innovation, and establish appropriate governance, policies, regulations and measures to adapt to the challenges posed by climate change, especially as they affect water resources. It is essential to ensure greater resilience by keeping an audit or inventory of water resources with the aim of tracking the effects of climate change. This will directly aid and inform the development of location-specific strategies to cope with the effects and impacts of climate change. Dealing with climate change also require strengthening the resilience of farmers and rural people and help them adapt to the impact of climate change.
Dr. N. K. Gontia, Principal and Dean, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, JAU, Junagadh addressed some issues of water scarcity and its mitigation strategies in the context of climate change.
Dr. H. D. Rank, Course Director, highlighted the importance of the Model Training Course.
Teaching:
Ph. D Project
0
M. Tech Project
1
Courses Teaching 2
Research Achievements:
(A) Recommendations released for farmer:
  1. Hard, grassy or dryland fields with stubbles of sugarcane, wheat, millet and sorghum can be prepaid for immediate sowing in next season by working ones with rotavator  instead of working three or more times with plough, cultivator and straight blade harrow rotavator is the quickest and cheapest means for land preparation. This implement is recommended for farmers use.          (1982)
  2. Drilling attachment to multipurpose pipe framed implement is useful for automatic and uniform sowing without gaps and clusters. It helps in reducing cost of seeds and sowing and increased the yield of crops. This implement is recommended for farmers use. (1983)
  3. Farmers are recommended to use adjustable yoke instead if three or more local yokes. (1986)
  4. The bullock drawn multi crop seed-cum-fertilizer drilling attachment to "Samrat Santi" is useful for sowing groundnut, blackgram, Bengal gram, green gram, cotton, sorghum, wheat, pearl millet and sesamum etc. with uniform seed placement at controlled rates alongwith fertilizer drilling manually. Its use is economical as compared to the local seed drill, it is recommended for farmer's use. (1996)
  5. Small and marginal farmers are recommended to replace their pair of bullocks by single bullock and use single bullock drawn multipurpose implement for harrowing, sowing and interculturing operation. (1993)
  6. The tractor drawn drilling attachment to cultivator is useful for sowing groundnut blackgram, bengalgram, sorghum, sesamum, pearl millet and pigeonpea etc, with uniform seed placement and controlled seed rates. Its use is also economical as compared to tractor drawn manually metered seed drill (LOCAL). Hence, it is recommended for farmer's use. (1996)
  7. The bullock drawn hoe-cum-Fertilizer drilling attachment is useful to place second dose of nitrogenous fertilizer (Urea) for cotton is moist soil zone near the plant roots alongwith the interculturing operation without plant damage. In comparison to traditional method crop yield is also increased by placing fertilizer with this equipment. Hence, its use is beneficial to the cotton grower. It is therefore, recommended for farmer's use. (1996)
  8. The seed cum fertilizer drilling attachment to tractor drawn cultivator is useful for sowing of crops like groundnut, green gram, block gram, gram, wheat, sorghum, pearl millet and pigeon pea along with the fertilizer application with uniform placement and controlled seed and fertilizer rate. There fore, it is released for the farmers’ use and its commercial exploitation. (2000)
  9. The farmers are recommended to use semi automatic gap filler for filling the gaps in the field and for planting wide spaced crops like cotton, Castor and groundnut.  Using this equipment work out put of the operator can be increased by two times. Therefore the equipment is released for farmers’ use and its commercial exploitation. (2000)
  10. A mango plucker has been devised and recommended for commercial use by farmers in order to mechanize the mango harvesting.  It maintains fruit stack length of 1-2 cm. and doubles the work output. (2001)
  11. Following matching equipments are recommended for farmers' use for increasing the usefulness of power tillers  :  (2001)
    1. 300 to 375 mm long twin straight blade with tool carrier for interculturing groundnut sown at 600 mm row spacing.
    2. Straight blade harrows of size 450 mm, 600 mm, 750 mm etc. as per spacing with two depth controlling wheels and tool carrier can be used for groundnut harvesting. (Curved blade is more effective in case of hard soil conditions)
    3. A drive mechanism designed and developed to operate locally available threshers and decorticators.
  12. Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone No. 7 growing castor and other raw crops like groundnut, cotton etc. are advised to use sweep blade (angle - 70o and working length - 42 cm) for interculturing to reduce number of clogging and to increase weeding and field efficiency as compared to straight and curved blade. Use of sweep blade in interculturing also reduces human drudgery to operator. (2005)
  13. Mango growers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone are advised to use positioner for mango harvesting with uniform stalk length (1-2 cm.), for maintaining white layer on the fruits and with choice of matured fruits as the operation is conducted at a close distance. Using this machine, one can get economical advantage over local picker.(2006)
  14. The farmer, entrepreneur and design engineer are advised to install the drip irrigation system as per the layout as given below for different crops for minimizing the cost of installation.(2007)
 Cost of  Drip irrigation  in horticultural crops :
Sr. No.
Name of Crop
Spacing 
( m x m)
Expenditure
( Rs/ha)
Design Layout No.
Size of Different components
Screen Filter
Main Line
Sub main line
Lateral
Dripper Discharge
M3/h
mm
mm
mm
Lph
1
Mango
10 x 10
25,376/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
2
Sapota
10 x 10
25,493/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
3
Coconut
6 x 6
33,855/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
4
Custard apple
6 x 6
34,123/-
5
10
-
50
16
4
5
Guava
6 x 6
33,372/-
3 or 5
10
50
40
12
8
6
Lemon
6 x 6
33,855/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
7
Pomegranate
6 x 6
35,131/-
5
10
-
50
16
4
8
Datepalm
8 x 8
30,255/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
9
Ber
6 x 6
32,209/-
3 or 5
10
50
40
12
8
10
Amla
8 x 8
29,476/-
4 or 5
10
40
32
12
8
11
Popaya
2 x 2
58,789/-
5
10
-
75
16
4
12
Cashew nut
5.4 x 5.4
36,124/-
5
10
-
50
16
8
Cost of  Drip irrigation  in field crops :
Sr. No.
Name of Crop
Crop geometry
( m x m ) 
(R x P)
Lateral x Dripper Spacing
(mx m)
Expen-diture
(Rs/ha)
Design Layout No.
Size of Different components
Screen Filter
Main Line
Sub main line
Late-ral
Dripper Discharge
M3/h
mm
mm
mm
Lph
1
Groundnut
0.45x0.1
0.9 x 0.6
1,23,986/-
3
20
90
75
12
2
2
Groundnut
0.9x0.1
0.9 x 0.6
1,19,971/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
3
Groundnut
0.6x0.1
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
4
Groundnut
0.75x0.1
0.75x0.6
1,42,174/-
3
25
90
75
12
2
5
Cotton
1.5x0.6
1.5 x 1.2
86,723/-
3
25
90
75
16
8
6
Cotton
1.2x0.6
1.2 x 1.2
78,612/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
7
Cotton
0.9x0.6
0.9 x 1.2
98,673/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
8
Castor
0.6x0.6x 1.2
1.8 x 0.6
68,619/-
3
10
63
50
12
2
9
Castor
0.9x0.6
0.9 x 1.2
98,673/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
10
Castor
0.9x0.6
0.9 x 0.6
1,48,711/-
4
40
75
63
16
4
11
Tomato/ Brinjal
0.6 x 0.6 x 0.9
1.5 x 1.2
68,301/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
12
Tomato/ Brinjal
0.75x0.6
0.75x1.2
1,16,618/-
3
25
90
75
12
4
13
Banana
1.5 x 1.5
1.5 x 1.5
62,290/-
3
10
63
50
12
4
14
Banana
1x1.2 x 2
3.2 x 1/2
45,101/-
5
10
-
50
16
2
15
Chilles
0.6 x 0.6
1.2 x 1.2
78,612/-
3
20
75
63
12
4
16
Lady's finger
0.6 x 0.3
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
17
Lady's finger
0.3x 0.3x 0.9
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
18
Cabbage/ Cauliflower
0.45 x 0.45
0.9 x 0.9
1,02,902/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
19
Cabbage/ Cauliflower
0.3 x 0.3 x 0.9
1.2 x 0.6
94,586/-
3
20
75
63
12
2
20
Bittergourd
1 x 1
1 x 1
99,647/-
3
20
90
75
12
4
21
Sugarcane
0.1 x 0.6 x 1.2
1.8 x 0.6
68,619/-
3
10
63
50
12
2

 

15
The farmers having Kagzilime orchards are advised to use the JAU-Lime harvester to reduce losses like spoilage and immature lemon fall-up (2010)
16
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut under poor drainage field conditions are advised to sow by Broad Bed Furrow method (55 cm width and 15 cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed between two furrows) for getting higher yield and net return.
17
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone having saline ground water (EC-3.15 dsm-1) and medium black calcareous soil (EC-0.88 dsm-1) conditions are advised to introduce horticulture plants like; Seemaruba, Sweet Tamarind, Aonla, Pomogranate, Sapota, Date palm, Ber, Carambola and Guava.
18
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone are advised to use the excess rainfall prevailing during 27-32nd standard weeks (2nd July to 12th August) judiciously and frugally towards supplemental to sustain crop pruductivity under rainfed agriculture. (2013)
19
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut are advised to prefer Broad Bed Furrow (55cm width and 15cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed width between two furrows) land configuration for getting more moisture retention and higher return. (2013)
20
Farmers’of South Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone growing Bt. Cotton are advised to adopt drip irrigation (with 1.2m lateral spacing, 40cm dripper spacing and emitter discharge of 2 lph) in raised bed covered with silver black plastic mulch of 20 micron and irrigate every alternate day at 0.8ETc level (or to operate system for 2 to 3.5hrs, 2.25 to 3.25 hrs and 1.25 to 3hrs during September-October, November-December and January respectively) for acquiring  higher yield (33%) water use efficiency (79%), higher water productivity (91%)and higher net returnover no mulch.(2015)
21
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone growing Sapota (Kalippati) are advised to adopt drip irrigation (2 drippers per plant upto 2 years and after that 4 dripper per plant, dripper discharge of 4 lph) covered with black plastic mulch of 100 micron and irrigate every alternate day at 0.6 IW/ETc (or apply water 14, 34, 48, 34, 8, 11 and 9 liters per day per plant during January-February, March-April, May, June, July-August, September-October and November-December respectively) for acquiring higher yield and net return of Sapota over no mulch (2016)
22
Farmers’ of South Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone growing cumin are advised to adopt drip irrigation with triangular geometry having 0.6m lateral spacing and 2 lph emitter discharge and to irrigate at 4 days interval with 0.8 IW/ETc (2 hours) for acquiring higher yield(38%), water use efficiency (60.95%), water productivity (61%) and net return (38.87%) compared to farmers’ practices. (2017)
23
Tractor operated Farm Yard Manure applicator developed by Junagadh Agricultural University is recommended for farmers’ useand for commercial exploitation to apply FYM at desired row spacing within furrow as per requirement. It saves time and economical as compared to manual FYM application. (2017)
24
Farmers’ of South Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone growing fennel are advised to adopt drip irrigation with 75 cm lateral spacing, 40 cm dripper spacing and 2 lps dripper discharge for acquiring higher yield (59%), water saving (69%) and higher net return over control. (2018)
25
The farmers’ of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone growing wheat are advised to adopt drip irrigation with 67.5 cm lateral spacing, 60 cm dripper spacing, 4 lps dripper discharge and 1.2 kg/cm2 operating pressure for acquiring higher yield (upto 29%), higher net return (upto 51%) and saving upto 18 % irrigation water over control. (2021)
26
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone growing brinjal crop during rabi season are recommended to apply 100 % RDF of phosphorous and 25 % RDF of N and K (100:37.5:37.5 N: P2O5: K2O) as a basal dose and remaining 75 % RDF of N and K through drip irrigation in 7 equal splits after 25 days of transplanting at 12 days interval to obtain higher yield, net return, water use efficiency and save up to 42 % irrigation water compared to furrow irrigation. (2022)
27
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone growing wheat are recommended to apply 7.5 t/ha. FYM in furrow in addition to RDF, using Junagadh Agricultural University developed FYM applicator to obtain higher net return and save 25 % of FYM. (2022)
(B) Recommendations released for Scientific Community:-
1
Scientists, Policy makers and Irrigation planners of South Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone are advised to plan their irrigation water schedules to the crop based on the following guidelines:
 
1)   Moderately dry and severe dry years appear once in seven years 7 years and 10 years from 2002
2)   Moderately dry July, August and September months appear once in 10 years, 9 years  and 5 years respectively from 2002
3)   Severe dry July, August and September months and years appear once in 9 years, 18 years, and 13 years respectively from 2002
4)   Abnormal weeks appear once in six years from 2002
5)   Severe dry spell of 15 days occur once in 15 years during July and August
6)  A dry spell of 10 days occur once in 7 years in July (July 1-10) and once in 13 years in August (Aug 10-20) (10th AGRESCO JAU/RS(AE)/Tech-1/192-237, Date 21/02/2013)
2
1) Planners, designers, NGO’s field officers and Govt. Departments
The following three models developed by JAU can be used to decide the lateral and emitter spacing in drip irrigation design for a particular emitter discharge in loamy soil.
Case: a) If moisture data before irrigation is not monitored
Planners Designers, NGO’s, Field officers and Govt. Departments are recommended to use the following expression for determining the wetting dimensions if moisture information is not available
 
Where W = Diameter of wetted spread on the ground surface, m; q= emitter discharge in lph; V = volume of water application, l, and Ks = saturated hydraulic conductivity, m/sec; and Z= depth of wetting front below the emitter, m.
Case: b)   If moisture data before irrigation is monitored then
The Planners Designers, NGO’s, Field officers and Govt. Departments are recommended to use the following expression for determining the wetting dimensions if moisture information is available
 
 
Where R = Radius of wetted spread on the ground surface, cm; q= emitter discharge in ml/h; V = volume of water application ml; and Ks = saturated hydraulic conductivity, cm/h; and Z  = depth of wetting front below the emitter, cm.
(10th AGRESCO JAU/RS(AE)/Tech-1/1281-1313, Date 18/02/2014)
3
The Scientists of South Saurashtra agro-climatic zone are advised to keep the following suggestions while using the following developed equations by various scientists for predicting the wetting geometry in Loamy Soils
 
1) Healy and Warrick (1981) model predicted wetting geometry ( width (R2 = 0.3141) and depth (R2 = 0.1918) at lower discharges with poor accuracy and failed to predict at higher emitter discharges (> 8 lph)
2) Philips (1984) model predicted wetting geometry (both width and depth) at lower and higher emitter discharges with good accuracy
3) Accuracy of original Debral (2012) dimensional analysis model is low in predicting wetting geometry (both depth below the emitter (R2 = 0.845) and width at the surface (R2 = 0.895)).
4) BEN-ASHER Hemi Spherical Model (1985) predicted both depth (R2 = 0.962) and width (R2 = 0.9774) with good accuracy
5) Steady state Wooding model (1968), Steady state Raats model and moment analysis approach predicted both steady width with low accuracy (10th AGRESCO JAU/RS(AE)/Tech-1/1281-1313, Date 18/02/2014)
4

1)      Root growth study of Brinjal crop under different irrigation methods

The drip designers/ Irrigation water managers/Scientific communities are advised to adopt the following root growth models of exponential model of either Rasmussen and Hanks or Hanks and Hill for Brinjal crop grown in loamy soil as a decision support tool for drip operational parameters to get wetted bulb matching with depth and spreading of root zone. Model efficiency was observed 99.79 %. The maximum number of lateral roots and length of the lateral roots found under drip irrigation with mulch resulted maximum moisture uptake (56.91 %) from first quarter of root zone (0-25 % from top) at all plant growth stages compared to other irrigation 167 methods.

(18th AGRESCO JAU/RS(AE)/Tech-1/390-391, Date 01/06/2022)
(C) The following technologies have been recommended for farmers :
1
Test data of 24 submersible pumps available in the market are released for the farmers to select the best for their requirements. (1980)
2
Use of power tiller for conducting three major farm operations like sowing, inter culturing and groundnut harvesting are found beneficial as compare to pair of bullocks. Hence, farmers having mechanical aptitude are recommended to use power tiller instead of bullock for groundnut farming. (1986)
3
The farmers having mechanical aptitude can successfully, replace the pair of bullocks by a power tiller (due to lower cost of field operations with higher speed, e.g. the total cost of the six operations for groundnut cultivation was found to be Rs. 1314 /ha using power tiller as compared to Rs. 2158 /ha with pair of bullocks. The area covered per unit time was also higher using power tiller in all the operations as compared to a pair of bullock.)  (1994)
4
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic zone growing summer groundnut (row spacing 45 cm) are recommended to use drip method  (with laterals in alternate rows at 90 cm spacing and 4 lph drippers at 45 cm spacing) to irrigate the crop alternate day at IW/CPE : 0.8. The farmers are advised to operate drip system for 45 minutes to 1 hour during January to March months and 1 hour to 1 hour 45 minutes during April to June months at recommended pressure for securing maximum production at profit. (1994)
5
For the safe and prolonged use of recharging wells, it is recommended for the farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic zone to use GAU filter for trapping sediment and other impurities from the runoff water after it passes through commonly adopted pre-filter with a good vegetative barrier.
            The filter comprises of three layer of 30 to 40 mm gravel, 8 to 12 mm pebbles and 2 to 3 mm coarse sand each of 15 cm thick from bottom followed by a 20 cm thick layer of 0.5 to 1.0 mm fine sand. A pipe of appropriate size from filter bottom to the well be laid at a slope of 5 par cent with suitable arrangement of bigger stones around the entrance end of it. A runoff by-pass arrangement 20 cm. Further, for an inflow rate of 1 liter per second, a filter size of 3 sq.m. is enough to  function  efficiently for  a period of  atleast  80 minutes. (1998)
6
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing papaya crop are recommended to use 200 gauge LDPE plastic mulch in drip irrigation with the 8 LPH drippers placed 20 cm away from plant stem. The system be operated daily for 3 hrs. at 1.1 Kg/cm2  pressure in  October to February and for  5  hrs. from March to April to gain maximum yield and profit. Under water scarcity situation,  it is advised to irrigate daily for 1.75 hrs. during October to February and for 3 hrs. from March to April for bringing more area under cultivation with the limited available of water for maximum earning.  (1999)
7
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut under poor drainage field conditions are advised to sow by Broad Bed Furrow method (55 cm width and 15 cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed between two furrows) for getting higher yield and net return.
8
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone are advised to use the excess rainfall prevailing during 27-32nd standard weeks (2nd July to 12th August) judiciously and frugally towards supplemental to sustain crop pruductivity under rainfed agriculture. (2013)
9
Farmers of South Saurashtra Agro Climatic Zone growing bunch type Groundnut are advised to prefer Broad Bed Furrow (55cm width and 15cm depth of furrow and 100cm bed width between two furrows) land configuration for getting more moisture retention and higher return. (2013)
10
Adoption of drip irrigation (with 1.2m lateral spacing, 40cm dripper spacing and emitter discharge of 2 lph) in raised bed covered with silver black plastic mulch of 20 micron and should irrigate every alternate day at 0.8ETc level, for getting higher yield, water use efficiency, higher water productivity and higher return of Bt. cotton(2015)
11 Adoption of drip irrigation (2 drippers per plant upto 2 years and after that 4 dripper per plant, dripper discharge of 4 lph) covered with black plastic mulch of 100 micron and irrigate every alternate day at 0.6 IW/ETc for higher yield and net return of Sapota (2016)
12 Adoption of drip irrigation with triangular geometry having 0.6m lateral spacing and 2 lph emitter discharge and to irrigate at 4 days interval with 0.8 IW/ETc (2 hours) for higher yield, water use efficiency, water productivity and net return of Cumin(2017)
13
Drip irrigation scheduling suggested for Fennel crop for getting higher yield and net returns. (2018)
14
Irrigation Scheduling suggested for wheat under different land configuration. (2020)
15
Drip irrigation scheduling suggested for wheat with different lateral geometry. (2020)
16
Drip irrigation and fertigaton scheduling suggested for brinjal crop for getting higher yield and net returns. (2021)
17
Root growth study of depth and spread of root zone under different irrigation methods were suggested to scientists for Brinjal crop grown in loamy soil. (2021)
18
Recommended the dose of FYM application to the farmers of South Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone growing wheat using FYM applicator to obtain higher net return and save of FYM. (2022)
 
(D) Farm equipment’s have been recommended and released for farmers' use:-
  1. Tractor drawn rotavator (1982)
  2. Drilling attachment to multipurpose pipe frame implement (1983).
  3. Adjustable yoke (1986).
  4. Single bullock drawn implement (1993).
  5. Seed-cum-fertilizer drilling attachment to pipe frame implement (1996).
  6. Drilling attachment to the tractor drawn cultivator (1996).
  7. Bullock drawn hoe-cum-fertilizer drill (1996).
  8. Seed-cum-fertilizer drilling attachment to tractor drawn cultivator  (2000)
  9. Semi automatic gap filler (2000).
  10. Mango harvesting device (2001)
  11. Power tiller matching equipment for interculturing / harvesting and       threshing of groundnut. (2001)
  12. Use of sweep blade for interculturing (2005)
  13. Tractor operated positioner for mango harvesting. (2006)
  14. Standardization of drip irrigation system (2008)
  15. Kagzilime harvester (2010)
  16. Farm Yard Manure Applicator (2017)
The Following technologies have been recommended for farmers :
  1. Submersible pump test data for the selection of pumps (1980).
  2. Use of power tiller in place of a pair of bullocks for groundnut cultivation for the   farmers having mechanical aptitude (1986)
  3. Use of power tiller for farming (1994).
  4. Use of drip irrigation for summer groundnut (1994).
  5. Use of sand filter for artificial ground water recharging through dug wells (1998).
  6. Use of drip irrigation with mulching in papaya crop (1999).
  7. Standardization of design drip irrigated system (2008)
  8. Introduction of horticultural plants for coastal belt area (2011)
  9. Broad bed furrow for groundnut under poor drainage condition (2012)
  10. Drought investigation using SPI index for Junagadh (2012)
  11. Broad bed furrow land configuration for bunch type groundnut (2013)
  12. Geometry of wetting pattern under trickle irrigation (2013)  
  13. Use of drip irrigation with mulching for Bt. Cotton (2015)
  14. Use of drip irrigation with mulching for Sapota (2016)
  15. Dripper geometry and lateral configuration in Cumin (2017)
  16. Drip irrigation scheduling for fennel crop is advised to increase yield and net profits. (2018)
  17. Irrigation Wheat scheduling under various land configurations is suggested. (2020)
  18. Drip irrigation scheduling suggested for wheat with different lateral geometry. (2020)
  19. Drip irrigation and fertigation scheduling suggested for brinjal crop for getting higher yield and net returns. (2021)
  20. Root growth study of depth and spread of root zone under different irrigation methods were suggested to scientists for Brinjal crop grown in loamy soil. (2021)
  21. To increase net returns and conserve FYM, it was advised to South Saurashtra Agroclimatic Zone farmers to apply the recommended dose of FYM. (2022)
Publications : (Include the publications published by Station only)
(a) Publications :
Book:
  1. Water Management and Climate Smart Agriculture (2015). Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi. Volume-1 (ISBN No. 978-81-212-1315-8) by R. Subbaiah and G. V. Prajapati
  2. Water Management and Climate Smart Agriculture (2015). Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi. Volume-2 (ISBN No. 978-81-212-1316-8) by R. Subbaiah and G. V. Prajapati
  3. Water Management and Climate Smart Agriculture (2015). Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi. Volume-3 (ISBN No. 978-81-212-1317-2) by R. Subbaiah and G. V. Prajapati
  4. Implications of Climate Change on pedagogical issues of water resources management (2015)byR. Subbaiah and G. V. Prajapati
  5. Water Security and Challenges in the Arena of Climate Change (2017) by H. D. Rank and G. V. Prajapati
Booklet (Gujarati):
  1. "Adjustable yoke"  by P. Mohnot, R.A. Gupta and R.B. Maraviya(1997)
  2. "Single  bullock drawn multi purpose implement " by R.A. Gupta, P. Mohnot  and  R.B. Maraviya (1998)
  3. Farm  implements of  Saurashtra (Gujarat) by R.A. Gupta, R.M. Satasiya, P. Mohnot and R.B. Maraviya (2002).
  4. Saurashtra vistarma jalstrav vyavsthapan (watershed management) antargat jalsanchay. (2008)
  5. Occha Pani A Vadhu Pak Utpadan Levano Safal Kimiyo - Pani No Karyaxam Upiyog by H.D. Rank, H. H. Mashru, G. V. Prajapati (2009)
  6. Bhumigat Piyat Padhdhati- Piyat no ek adhunik abhigam by G. V. Prajapati, R. Subbaiah, H. H. Mashru (2011)
  7. Tapak Sinchai Padhdhati ane Teni Jalavani by H. H. Mashru, R. Subbaiah, G. V. Prajapati (2011)
  8. Khetima Mulching no upyog by G.V. Prajapati and R. Subbaiah (2013)

Booklet (English):

  1. Guideline and standardization of drip irrigation for various crops. (2008)
  2. Augmentation of water resources through rain water harvesting in  Saurashtra region (Gujarat) (2008)
Pamphlet:
  1. Pump  setni  jalavani kem  karsho ?  (1984)
  2. Sudharela khet  ojaro  by  P. Mohnot, R.A. Gupta and R.B. Maraviya(1947)
  3. Power  tiller -  khetima  baladno  vikalp by  P. Mohnot, R.B. Maraviya, Punil Gajjar and  R.A. Gupta (1999).
  4. Adhunik  krushi  yantro  by  R.B. Maraviya,  R.A. Gupta, P. Mohnot and N.K. Darmsania (1999).
  5. Khedut  upayogi  nutan krushi yantro by R.A. Gupta P. Mohnot and R.M. Satasiya (2000).
  6. Varasadna vahi  jata panine  filterthi galine kuvama utariye  by N.K. Gontia,  R.A.  Gupta,  P.Mohnot,  R.M. Satasiya and  R.B. Maraviya (2002) 
  7. Khedut  upayogi  nutan krushi yantro by R.H. Ghaghada, P. Mohnot, R.A. Gupta and R.M. Satasiya (2004).
  8. Watershed  management  technology in hot arid region  by  R.H. Ghaghada, R. M. Satasiya,  H. H. Mashru (2004).
  9. Bhugarb jal  recharge by H.D. Rank, H. H. Mashru, G. V. Prajapati (2009)
  10. Adhunik Krishi Ojaro Tatha Yantro by J. B. Savani, R. Subbaiah, H. H. Mashru, G.V.Prajapati (2010)
  11. Kagzi Limbu Utarvano Vedo by H. H. Mashru, R. Subbaiah, G. V. Prajapati (2011)
  12. Nabali Nitar Shakti Vali Jaminma Magfalinu Vavetar by G. V. Prajapati, R. Subbaiah, H. H. Mashru, V. K. Sardhara (Aug 2012)
  13. Saurashtrana Dariyakanthama Ugadi Sakata Bagayati Pako by G. V. Prajapati, R. Subbaiah, V. K. Sardhara, H. H. Mashru  (Aug 2012)
  14. Gadi Kyara Paddhati Apnavo Magfalinu Vadhu Utpadan Melvo by. G. V. Prajapati, R. Subbaiah, V. K. Sardhara (Aug 2013)
  15. Kapas ma  Tapak Sinchai Padhdhati sathe Malching by G.V. Prajapati, N. K. Dhamsania, J. J. Makwana and N. S. Vithlani  (3-1-12, Aug 2016)
  16. Chiku ma  Tapak Sinchai Padhdhati sathe Malching by G.V. Prajapati, N. K. Dhamsania, N. S. Vithlani and J. J. Makwana ( 3-1-13, Aug 2016)
  17. Jiruma Tapak Sinchai Padhdhati Dwara Nafakarak Kheti by G. V. Prajapati, H. D. Rank, N. S. Vithlani and J. J. Makwana (3-1-36, Sept 2017)
  18. Chhaniyu Khatar Folvanu Sadhan by G. V. Prajapati, H. D. Rank, V. R. Vagadia, J. J. Makwana and N. S. Vithlani (3-1-37, Sept. 2017)
Transfer of technologies:
  1. Demonstration of farm tools/ equipment’s developed at the centre.
  2. Participation in exhibition, krushimela, farmer and scientific day organized by government / non-government organization.
  3. Preparation of extension materials like folder, pamphlet, technical bulletin etc related to farm implement, filter for well recharging, power filler.
  4. The scientific staff of the centre has delivered lectures in different training programme.
  5. The scientist has delivered radio and TV talks.
  6. Publication of popular articles in various magazines, News papers etc. 
  7. Farmer, village artesian, industrialists are visiting the centre. Literature and information of agricultural implement and water harvesting techniques are supplied to them.
  8. Technical guidance related to water management given to different departments of this University.
Trainings organized under "Centre of Excellence on Soil & Water Management"

Sr. No.

Title of Training
Date of training
Place
No. of Farmers
1
Rain water harvesting and its efficient utilization
22-24/11/2005
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
38 Framers
2
Efficient utilization of irrigation water by micro irrigation systems
16-17/3/2006
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
21 Ngo’s employee
3
Water resources of Saurashtra and its efficient utilization in agriculture
28-29/11/2006
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
31 Farmers
4
Soil conservation and water harvesting in arable and non-arable lands of Saurashtra
24-25/10/2007
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
36 Farmers
5
Soil & water conservation practices
15-16/12/2008
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
26 GLDC & NGO staff
6
Integrated development of irrigated and rainfed agriculture
18-19/1/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
32 Farmers
7
Groundnut cultivation and its value addition
16/04/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
45 Farmers
8
Application of advanced science and technology in wheat cultivation
05/10/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
43 Farmers
9
Advanced agricultural practices for cotton
14/12/2010
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
30 (Farmers)
10
Advanced agricultural practices for vegetable crops
08/08/2011
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
30 Farmers
11
Exportable agricultural practices of onion and its value addition
19/10/2011
 
Research Scientist (Horti), Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mahuva
50 Farmers
 
12
Exportable agricultural practices of horticultural crops and its value addition
13/01/2012
Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mangrol
50 Farmers
 
13
Advanced agricultural practices for horticultural crops and its value addition
06/03/2012
TCD Farm, JAU, Talaja
150 Farmers
14
Advance agricultural practices and efficient water management in cotton
01/09/2012
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
45 Farmers
15
Advanced agricultural practices for vegetable crops and efficient water management
12/03/2013
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
60 Farmers
16
Advanced agricultural practices for pulse crops and its value addition
02/07/2013
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
40
Farmers
17
Land and Water management strategies to improve crop productivity
03/01/2014
Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mangrol
60 (Farmers)
18
Advanced agricultural practices for increasing crop production under saline and sodic soil. (Khedut din)
14/03/2014
School of Agriculture, Halvad
300 (Farmers)
19
Conservation of energy and its maintanance in irrigated agricultudre.
16/12/2014
Research Testing & Training Centre, JAU, Junagadh
50
(Farmers)
20
More crop per drop of water under saline and sodic soil
28/01/2015
Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mangrol
150 (Farmers)
21
Water harvesting, water management and value addtion for enhancing agricultural productivity of Coastal Area
09/06/2015
Research Scientist (Horti), Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mahuva
100 (Farmers)
22
Climate resilient agriculture of Groundnut, Banana and Onion and its value addition.
14/09/2015
TCD Farm, JAU, Talaja. Dist. Bhavnagar
300 (Farmers)
23
Exportable agricultural practices of horticultual as well as field crops and its value addition
02/03/2016
TCD Farm, JAU, Talaja. Dist. Bhavnagar
100 (Farmers)
24
Efficient use of water in agriculture, its management and maintenance
11/03/2016
Dry Farming Research Station, JAU, Valbhipur
100 (Farmers)
25
Advance Agricultural Practices of Sapota and its value addition
24/04/2016
Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mangrol
150 (Farmers)
26
Use of drip irrigation system and its maintenance
7-9/09/2016
RTTC, JAU, Junagadh
23 (JAU employees)
27
Use of drip irrigation system and its maintenance
21-23/02/2017
RTTC, JAU, Junagadh
23 (JAU employees)
28
Saline water management and value addition in Sapota
27/04/2017
Fruit Research Station, JAU, Mangrol
110 (Farmers)
29
Advanced agricultural practices of Groundnut and Cotton along with water management
19/07/2017
Hotel Krishna and Garden Restaurant, Vadal
150
(Farmers)
30 Qualitative production, Value addition, and business approach for doubling farm income 20/04/2018 RTTC, JAU, Junagadh 35 (Farmers)
31
Water Management Awareness Programme
19/02/2019
Baliyavad, Ta. Bhesan
45 (Farmers)
32
Water Management Awareness Programme
31/07/2019
Araniyara, Ta. Mendarda
55 (Farmers)
Organized Webinars for the farmers on various topics
No.
Title of Webinar
Name of Expert
Association with other organizations
Date
No. Participant
1
Groundnut Cultivation and Seed Production
Dr. Nilesh Dholaria
Asst. Prof., Oilseed Res. Station, JAU, Junagadh
--
28/05/2021
40
2
Techniques for Water Conservation
Prof. H. H. Mashru, Asst. Prof., CAET, JAU, Junagadh
ATMA, Agrivison and Paryavaran Sanrakshan Gatividhi
04/06/2021
150
3
Organic Farming
Dr. S. K. Chodvadiya, Asst. Prof., Dept. of Agronomy, JAU, Junagadh
ATMA, Agrivison AFPRO, Paryavaran Sanrakshan Gatividhi
11/06/2021
70
4
Cultivation practices for moisture conservation in Kharif season
Dr. G. V. Prajapati, Associate Research Scientist, RTTC, JAU, Junagadh
In collaboration with Krishi Vigyan Kendra - Gir Somnath
14/06/2021
100
5
Management of Soil borne Diseases in Kharif Crops
Prof. S. V. Lathiya, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Plant Pathology, CoA, JAU, Junagadh
In collaboration with KVK, Gir-Somanath and ATMA, AFPRO associated
18/06/2021
65
6
Techniques for Groundwater Recharge
Prof. P. B. Vekaria, Assistant Professor, Dept. of SWCE, CAET, JAU, Junagadh
ATMA, AFPRO, Paryavaran Sanrakshan Gatividhi
25/06/2021
150
7
Advanced Agricultural Implements: Its selection, Use and Maintenance
Prof. V. R. Vagadia, Asst. Prof., Dept. of Farm Engg, JAU, Junagadh
AFPRO
02/07/2021
150
8
Integrated pest management of pink bollworm in Cotton
Dr. M. F. Acharya, Prof. & Head, Dept. of Entomology, JAU, Junagadh
DSC, ATMA, AFPRO
17/07/2021
85

Service Activities:

1.  Land development, drainage work & water harvesting activities at university farms are undertaken.

2.  Technical recommendation for farm implements & equipments.

3.  Auction of scrap item of different departments of this university.