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Castor Research Station
Junagadh Agricultural University
Junagadh- 362 001 (Gujarat)
INTRODUCTION
Castor belongs to the genus Ricinus, a member of the Euphorbiaceae, which contains a vast number of plants mostly native to the tropics. The genus Ricinus is considered to be monotypic and R. communis is the only species, which includes many polymorphic types. The cultivated types are dwarf annuals. Castor plants have well developed root system with thick horizontal roots. Tap root looks like extension of the stem below the soil. The stem is erect, circular in section, partially hollow, glabrous, and smooth with good branching. Stem is either red or green or with shades of both. The stem is marked by well-defined nodes from each of which a leaf is arises. The lower internodes are shorter and their length increases with height. Leaves are alternate, large, and palmate with 5-11 lobes acuminate margins notched, serrate or indented. They are carried on long stout petioles. The inflorescence is borne terminally on the main and lateral branches. Flowers are large, in terminal sub panicled racemes, monoecious, apetalous, the upper portion of the raceme being occupied by the female flowers and the lower by male flowers The whole inflorescence may reach a length of 90 cm. The flowers are wind and insect pollinated and from 5 to 46 % natural pollination occurred. The fruit is round glaucous capsules with three projecting sides covered with tough spines or smooth, 3 loculed and three seeded. Seeds are albuminous, anatropous, broad, oval, compressed with a marked caruncle and longitudinal raphe. The testa is thin, brittle, varying in colour and mottling. Below the testa is thin legmen, covering a whitish oily endosperm containing the embryo.
   The Castor Research Station established at Junagadh of Gujarat state with the objectives to breed and develop high yielding, disease and pest resistant and better quality varieties of different oilseed crops like groundnut, castor, sesame, sunflower, soybean and mustard. Currently, the centre is actively engaged in groundnut and castor research works in the main areas like,
·         Plant Breeding& Genetics - Crop improvement
·         Agronomy- Crop production
·         Plant Protection: (a) Agril. Entomology, (b) Plant Pathology
·         Plant Physiology
Junagadh Center has developed a world first Castor hybrid, GCH-3 (TSP-10R x J-1) during the year 1968
RESEARCH IN CASTOR
Mandates of research 
·         To evolve production technologies for newly developed and improved hybrid.
·         To disseminate information generated through research to farmers through front line demonstrations.
·         To develop varieties and hybrids of castor crop with high yield potential and early varieties and hybrids, better quality and disease and pest resistance.
·         To solve problems regarding castor production through radio, TV programmes, popular articles, hand outs, personal discussion, night discussion and by organizing farmers' day and week end training programmes etc.
Objectives
·         To develop agro technology and plant protection measures for newly released castor hybrid/variety.
·         To develop varieties and hybrids of castor crop with high yield potential, early maturity better quality and disease and pest resistance.
·         To develop male and female line of castor crop with high yield potential, early maturity, better quality and disease and pest resistance.
·         To assess agronomic practices and plant protection measures for castor varieties / hybrids.
·         Farmers participatory research through on farm front line demonstrations of castor.
Research Activities
I.        Plant breeding
·         Experimental works in State and AICRP trials of kharif seasons
·         New crossing programme, Segregating materials and Maintenance of Inbred line
·         Development and maintenance of pistillate lines
·         Evaluation of hybrids/varieties in different trials
II.     Agronomy
·         Water, nutrient and weed management in groundnut and castor
·         Intercropping studies on groundnut and castor
·         Intercropping system of groundnut with castor, pearl millet, cotton and pigeon pea
III.    Entomology
·         Screening of groundnut entries / lines from PET, SSVT, LSVT, IVT and AVT for resistance to insect-pests in castor.
·         Monitoring of insect pest in castor.
·         Testing the bio-efficacy of certain insecticides and bio-pesticides in castor
IV.     Plant Pathology

·         Survey and Monitoring of various diseases of castor to find out the intensity and disease situation in Saurashtra region of Gujarat.

·         Screening of Promising genotypes of against major diseases in castor.

·         Integrated and eco-friendly management of major diseases in castor.

·         Screening of castor trial entries for root rot resistance in sick plot.

INFORMATION OF UNIT HEAD
Name of Unit Head
Dr. R. B. Madariya
Research Scientist (Castor)
Ph.D. (Genetics & Plant Breeding)
 
Office
(0285) 2672080-90, PBX-325
(0285) 2670205
Mobile
+91-9427104045
E-mail
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FACULTY INFORMATION
RESEARCH STAFF 
No.
Name
Photos
Designation & Email ID
Qualificat-ion
Specialized subject
1
Dr. R. B. Madariya
Associate  Research Scientist
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Ph.D.
Genetics & Plant Breeding
2
Dr. G. K. Sapara
Assistant Research Scientist
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Ph.D.
Plant Breeding & Genetics
3
Dr. U. M. Vyas
Assistant Research Scientist
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Ph.D.
Plant pathology
4
Dr. J. B. Bhut
Assistant Research Scientist
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Ph.D.
Entomology
TECHNICAL STAFF
Sr. No.
Name
Designation
Qualification
1
Shri M.S. Chaudhari
Agriculture Officer
B. Sc. (Agri.)
2
Shri C. J. Chaudhari
Agriculture Officer
Diploma (Agri.)
3
Shri. L.L. Limbadiya
Agriculture Officer
B. Sc. (Agri.)
4
Miss. H. R. Patel
Agriculture Officer
B. Sc. (Agri.)
COURSES TEACH BY FACULTY (U.G./P.G)
No.
Name of faculty
Discipline
Title of course
Credit
1
Dr. R. B. Madariya
Genetics & Plant Breeding
GP 506: Population Genetics
1+1
2
Dr. G. K. Sapara
SST 508: Seed Quality Testing
2+1
3
Dr. U. M. Vyas
Pl. Pathology
Pl. Path 515 Biological control of plant disease
2+1
4
Dr. J. B. Bhut
Entomology
Ag. Ento. 3.3: Pests of field crops & stored grain & their management
Agr. Ento 4.4: Pests of horticultural crops and their management
2+1
RESEARCH PROJECTS & SCHEMES (ON GOING)
Sr.
No
Name of the Scheme
Budget Head
Type of Scheme
Funding Agency
Year of Commencement
1.
Project for Research in Oilseeds
5008
Non- Plan
State
1972
2.
National Agricultural Research Project (NARP)
7082/A
Non- Plan
State
1987
3.
Strengthening Research in Oilseeds
12008
Plan
State
1986
4.
All India Coordinated Research Project on Castor
2008/1C
I.C.A.R. Plan
I.C.A.R.
1993
5.
Strengthening Research in Castor
12584
Plan
State
2008
6.
Front line demo. (FLD)-Castor
2704-23
AICRP
AICRP
1988
INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITY AND MAJOR EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE
Farm area under cultivation
:
12.00 ha
Area under farm structure/ buildings
:
0.50 ha
Irrigated area
:
12.00 ha
Source of irrigation
:
Wells and Bor-wells
LABORATORIES
No.
Name of instruments
Qty.
Utility
1
NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance)
01
For measurement of oil content in different crop
2
BOD incubator
01
For incubation, isolation of different fungi and bacteria
3
Hot air oven
01
4
Autoclave (vertical)
01
5
Laminar air flow
 
MAJOR ACHIEVMENTS
Varieties/Hybrids released 
Improved Varieties/ Hybrids Developed by Gujarat
Variety
Parentage
Year of release
Oil Content (%)
Yield (kg/ha)
Important characters
GAUC-1
VI-1 x VI-9
1973
47.50
2100
Suitable for irrigated and rainfed region
GC-3
   (JP-65 x JI-8)  x 48.1
2007
49.60
2340
Wilt and root rot resistant
Hybrids
GCH-3
TSP-10R x J-1
1969
-
1543
Shattering habit
GCH-2
VP-1 x  II-35
1985
47.80
1500-1700
Drought tolerant and resistant to root rot
GCH-6
JP-65 x JI-96
1998
49.90
2349
Resistant to wilt and tolerant to root rot
GCH 9
SKP-84 x PCS-124
2017
48.30
3781
Higher yield potential and resistant to wilt and root rot disease
PRODUCTION OF CASTOR PARENTAL SEED PRODUCTION (Kg.)
Varieties/Hybrid
2018-19
2019-2020
Total
PCH 124 (Male parent)
70
292
362
RECOMMENDATION
CROP PRODUCTION
1
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climate Zone are advised to sow their crop at onset of monsoon and soaking the seed in 1 % NaCl solution for three hours, to get higher seed yield and net income.
2
The farmers of South Saurashtra agro-climatic zone growing irrigated castor are advised to apply 75-40-00 NPK kg/ha along with two inter culturing, two hand weeding and two spray of insecticide for getting maximum yield and net return. Among the various package of practices, fertilizer application is the most critical practice followed by weeding and plant protection affecting seed yield and monetary realization.
3
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic zone growing irrigated castor are recommended to apply 20 kg S/ha through gypsum (154 kg/ha) along with recommended dose (75-40 NP kg/ha) as urea and DAP or the crop should be fertilized with RDF (75-40 NP kg /ha) through urea and single super phosphate for obtaining higher yield and net return.
4
The farmers of South Saurashtra agro climatic zone- VII growing castor are advised to keep the crop weed free by hand weeding and interculturing. Under paucity of farm labourers, they are advised to apply pendimethalin 30 EC 1 kg/ha (67 ml/10lit.) as pre-emergence + quizalofop-ethyl 5 EC 0.05 kg/ha (20ml/10 lit. ) as post emergence (25 days after sowing) for effective weed control as well as to get higher yield and net returns.
5
The farmers of South Saurashtra agro climatic zone- VII growing castor are advised to keep the crop weed free by hand weeding and interculturing. Under paucity of farm labourers, they are advised to apply pendimethalin 30 EC 1 kg/ha (67 ml/10lit.) as pre-emergence + quizalofop-ethyl 5 EC 0.05 kg/ha (20ml/10 lit. ) as post emergence (25 days after sowing) for effective weed control as well as to get higher yield and net returns.
6
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone growing soybean are advised to adopt relay intercropping system with castor by sowing castor at 30 day after sowing of soybean with row ratio of 1:2 (castor: soybean) for securing higher yield and net return.
7
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone growing castor are advised to apply 40 kg P2O5/ha and treat the seeds with phosphate solubilizing microorganism (Chaetomium globosum) @ 30 g inoculants/50 g seed along with recommended dose of nitrogen (120 kg/ha) for obtaining higher seed yield and net return.
8
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone growing irrigated castor are advised to apply potash @ 50  kg K2O/ha (25 kg/ha as basal and 25 kg/ha at 45 days after sowing) along with recommended dose of nitrogen and phosphorus (120-50 N-P2O5 kg/ha) for obtaining higher seed yield and net returns.
9
The farmers of South Saurshtra Agro-climatic Zone growing castor are advised to irrigate the crop at 0.8 PEF through drip irrigation and apply nitrogen @ 90 kg/ha (20 kg N/ha as a basal and remaining 70 kg N/ha through drip in form of urea in five equal splits an interval of 12 days starting after cessation of monsoon) along with recommended dose of phosphorus (50 kg/ha) as basal for obtaining higher yield and net return. The system details 1. Lateral spacing: 120 cm. 2. Dripper spacing: 60 cm. 3. Dripper discharge rate: 4 lph.4. Operating pressure: 1.2 kg/cm2. 5. Operating frequency: Every 3rd day irrigation. Operating time October: 110-125 min., November:100-110 min., Dec.-Jan. :95-105min.
10
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro- climatic Zone growing irrigated castor  in soil having medium status of potash are advised to sow castor at  spacing of 150 cm x 60 cm with an application of potash @ 40 kg/ ha as basal along with recommended dose of nitrogen and phosphorus (120-50kg NP/ha) for obtaining higher seed yield and net return.
11
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone growing irrigated castor are advised to apply PSB in  soil @ 2.0 li./ha or Bio-phos 30g/50g seed alongwith recommended dose of recommended dose of fertilizers (120-40-50 kg NP2O5K2O/ha) for obtaining higher seed yield and net return.
CROP PROTECTION
ENTOMOLOGY
1
The farmers of South Saurashtra Region of Gujarat State growing castor crop are advised to spray cypermethrin 0.01% or methyl-o-dematon 0.025% or dimethoate 0.03% first at initiation of infestation and second after 15 days of first spray for effective and economical control of leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii Burg.
2
Two sprays (first at initiation of infestation and second at 15 days after first spray) of any one of the following insecticides viz., Chlorpyriphos 0.05 % or Cypermethrin 0.015 % or Quinalphos 0.05% are recommended for the control of semilooper, Achea janata L. and leaf eating caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) in castor crop grown under South Saurashtra region.
3
For effective and economical management of wireworm in castor, seed treatment of carbaryl 50 WP @ 5g/ kg seed or carbosulfan 27.18 DS @ 5g/kg seed or imidacloprid 70 WS @ or 5g/kg seed furrow application with phorate @ 10 kg/ha is recommended under South Sourashtra condition.
4
For effective and economic management of thrips in castor crop, spraying of acephate 0.05 % or dimethoate 0.03 % or profenophos 40% + cypermathrin 4 % 0.044% is recommended under South Saurashtra condition.
5
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro-climatic Zone growing castor are advised to apply two sprays of  Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC 0.006%, 27.8 g. a.i./ ha (3.0 ml/10 litre of water) or Indoxacarb 14.5 SC 0.0073%, 36.3 g. a.i./ ha (5.0 ml/10 litre of water) or Spinosad 45 SC 0.009%, 45.0 g. a.i./ ha (2.0 ml/10 litre of water) or Emamectin Benzoate 5 % WG 0.002 %, 10.0 g. a.i./ ha (4.0 gm/10 litre of water) at 15 days interval starting from pest infestation for effective and economical management of defoliators.
PLANT PATHOLOGY
1
The farmers of South Saurashtra Agro climatic Zone growing castor during kharif season are advised to apply Trichoderma harzianum as seed treatment @ 4g/kg seed along with its soil application @ 2.5 kg enriched in 100 kg FYM for a week and applied at the time of sowing for effective and economical management of root rot disease as well as obtaining higher seed yield and net return.
AWARDS/MEDALS RECEIVED
1
The best castor research center award was bestowed upon AICRP (Castor) at Junagadh. A cash award of Rs 5000 and plaque were received by Prof. B.A. Kunadia and Dr. R.H. Kavani.
PUBLICATIONS
No.
Detail
No. of publication
1
Research paper published
a.      International journal
40
b.      National journal
75
2
Popular article
65
3
Booklet published
03
4
Bulletins
03
5
Paper published in seminar/symposium/conference
35
LIST OF PUBLICATION OF CURRENT YEAR
1
Virani H. B., Madariya R. B., Panera A. and Bhut N. M. (2019). Genetic analysis of yield and its biometric traits in castor (Ricinus communis L.). J. Pharmaco. Phytochem., 8(4): 2705-2708.
2
Vekariya, P. V., Desai, A. G. and Kelaiya, D. S. (2020). Physiological variability of Macrophominaphaseolina (Tassi) Goid, isolates causing root rot of castor. International journal of chemical studies 8(1): 3095-3100
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
FLD (Frontline Demonstrations):
The government of India, while realizing the import dependency of the edible oils, established the technology mission on Oilseeds (TMO) in 1986 which adopted four pronged strategy for reaping production, processing and storage technologies for attaining self reliance in oilseeds. The series of farmer oriented policies through TMO made an impact on the vegetable oil production of the country to shift from a stagnation stage to swift growth stage. The Adhoc Project on “Frontline demonstrations in oilseed Crops” sponsored by Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Government of India was launched from Kharif, 1990-91. The above scheme amply provided opportunities to the researchers of the All India Coordinated Research Project on Oilseeds (AICORPO) actively in generation of location specific technologies for (1) demonstrating to farmers what they were advocating, (2) test their effect and viability, (3) obtain feed from the clients and (4) fine-tune the technologies to improve their acceptability and suitability to real farm situation.

 

No.
Year
FLD
Kharif
Assigned
Conducted
 
 
IT
WP
IT
WP
1
2012-13
10
16
10
16
2
2013-14
10
6
10
6
3
2014-15
5
6
5
6
4
2015-16
10
15
10
15
5
2016-17
4
11
4
11
 
Total
39+54 = 93
39+54 = 93

IT = Inter cropping, WP = whole package

LAB TO LAND ACTIVITIES
No.
Extension activities
2014-2015
2015-2016
2016-2017
2017-2018
2018-2019
2019-2020
Total
1
No. of training programmes organized
1
1
1
0
1
1
340
No. of participants
50
55
100
55
45
35
20
2
Kishan Mela
4
4
2
3
4
3
29
3
MGMG
3
6
5
5
4
6
4
4
Krishi Mahoshtav
1
1
1
0
1
0
49
5
TV/Radio talk
10
5
10
9
10
5
340

Varieties

 

 

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